Category Archives: Balochi Language Teaching

Language teaching methodologies

By: Richards,J. and Rodgers,T
(1986) CUP Cambridge

Listed below are brief summaries of some of the more popular second language teaching methods of the last half century. For a more detailed analysis of the different methods, see Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Richards, J. and Rodgers, T (1986) CUP Cambridge.

The Direct Method

In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation.


Learning is largely by translation to and from the target language. Grammar rules are to be memorized and long lists of vocabulary learned by heart. There is little or no emphasis placed on developing oral ability.


The theory behind this method is that learning a language means acquiring habits. There is much practice of dialogues of every situations. New language is first heard and extensively drilled before being seen in its written form.

The structural approach

This method sees language as a complex of grammatical rules which are to be learned one at a time in a set order. So for example the verb “to be” is introduced and practised before the present continuous tense which uses “to be” as an auxiliary.


The theory underlying this method is that a language can be acquired only when the learner is receptive and has no mental blocks. By various methods it is suggested to the student that the language is easy – and in this way the mental blocks to learning are removed.

Total Physical Response (TPR)

TPR works by having the learner respond to simple commands such as “Stand up”, “Close your book”, “Go to the window and open it.” The method stresses the importance of aural comprehension.

Communicative language teaching (CLT)

The focus of this method is to enable the learner to communicate effectively and appropriately in the various situations she would be likely to find herself in. The content of CLT courses are functions such as inviting, suggesting, complaining or notions such as the expression of time, quantity, location.

The Silent Way

This is so called because the aim of the teacher is to say as little as possible in order that the learner can be in control of what he wants to say. No use is made of the mother tongue.

Community Language Learning

In this method attempts are made to build strong personal links between the teacher and student so that there are no blocks to learning. There is much talk in the mother tongue which is translated by the teacher for repetition by the student.


This corresponds to a great extent to the situation we have at our school. ESL students are immersed in the English language for the whole of the school day and expected to learn math, science, humanities etc. through the medium of the target language, English.

Task-based language learning

The focus of the teaching is on the completion of a task which in itself is interesting to the learners. Learners use the language they already have to complete the task and there is little correction of errors.

(This is the predominant method in middle school ESL teaching at Frankfurt International School. The tasks are subsumed in a major topic that is studied for a number of weeks. In the topic of ecology, for example, students are engaged in a number of tasks culminating in a poster presentation to the rest of the class. The tasks include reading, searching the internet, listening to taped material, selecting important vocabulary to teach other students etc.)

The Natural Approach

This approach, propounded by Professor S. Krashen, stresses the similarities between learning the first and second languages. There is no correction of mistakes. Learning takes place by the students being exposed to language that is comprehensible or made comprehensible to them.

The Lexical Syllabus

This approach is based on a computer analysis of language which identifies the most common (and hence most useful) words in the language and their various uses. The syllabus teaches these words in broadly the order of their frequency, and great emphasis is placed on the use of authentic materials.


A Grammar, Phrase Book and Vocabulary of Baluchi (as Spoken in the Sultanate of Oman)

By: Major N.A.Collett MA FRAS

6th Queen Elizabeth’s Own Gurkha Rifles and late of the Sultan’s Service
Second Edition

To Liwaa Nasib Bin Hamad Bin Salim Al Ruwaihi
Commander Sultan of Oman’s Land Forces and to
the Officers and Men of the Western Frontier Regiment
The Sultan of Oman’s Land Forces
1st Edition 1983
2nd Edition 1986
© N. A. Collett 1986
ISBN 0 9509345 1 8
Keyboarded by D. F. Harding
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Burgess & Son (Abingdon) Ltd.


The important “Course in Baluchi” of 1969, based on the Northern (Rakhshani) dialect of Western Baluchi by Barker and Mengal was and remains the best description we have of any Baluchi dialect. Even though Rakhshani is by far the most widely spoken dialect of Baluchi, it is by no means the most interesting or the most prestigious amongst native speakers, and little of the vast classical Baluchi balladry or other literature appears in it. On the other hand, the preferred dialects for classical poetry, Kechi and the Coastal variety of Western Baluchi, have not been the subject of any systematic study since the pioneering accounts of them more than a hundred years ago.
Major Collett has been dealing for some years with Baluch recruits, mainly from Pakistani Makran, to the armed forces of the Sultan of Oman, and wishing to provide a guide to their language as an aid to other officers from abroad, has written this account of it. Perforce he has based it on the Kechi dialect, and has thus provided a new description of what has hitherto been a neglected but nonetheless most important variety of Baluchi, important for its literary prestige as well as for its linguistically most conservative character.
The Kechi dialect of the phrasebook is still that used by the vast majority of Baluch recruits from Pakistan in the Omani forces, because of the policy of recruitment from the Kech Valley, but recently recruits have also been gathered from other Baluch areas of Pakistan as well. This circumstance is mirrored in the vocabulary lists, in which an occasional Pakistani form is to be found beside the Kechi form; some Coastal dialect forms, easily recognised, are also included. The vocabulary also contains many words hitherto unrecorded in Baluchi.
This work, painstaking as it is, stands well in the British Army traditions of writing accounts of languages of the Indian subcontinent. For Baluchi in particular there has been that of Major Mockler in 1877, Major Gilbertson in 1925, and now Major Collett has produced a valuable addition to the existing descriptions of Baluchi, one which deserves an honoured place amongst them.

J. Elfenbein


This account of the Kechi dialect of Baluchi is designed to fill a gap in the literature available to English speakers whose work in the Sultanate of Oman brings them into contact with speakers of Baluchi. It is aimed at those seeking to learn sufficient of the language for everyday use. It includes a grammatical description, a set of phrases designed particularly for military use, and a vocabulary listing words both from Baluchi to English, and vice versa.
Those seeking a more authoritative and comprehensive account of the language are referred to “A Course in Baluchi” by Mohammed Abd-al-Rahman Barker and Aqil Khan Mengal, published in 1969 by McGill University, Montreal. This is the standard work on the subject, though it is based on the Rakhshani dialect, which differs, in some respects considerably, from the Kechi dialect mostly used in Oman.
This work is based upon the experience of twenty months service in the Oman with Baluch troops of the Western Frontier Regiment, supplemented by subsequent research in the United Kingdom. Some of the vocabulary and idiom are, in probability, peculiar to the Sultan’s Forces, and the Baluchi represented here may be totally familiar neither to the specialist nor to the civilian inhabitant of Makran.
My grateful thanks are due to all those who assisted me in the preparation of this work; in particular to Lieutenant Colonel Peter Walton RAOC and Major William Foxton for their enthusiastic encouragement, to all the soldiers of D Company The Western Frontier Regiment, without whose help and perseverance this book would not have been possible, and especially to the following:
Naqib Zareen Noor Mohammed Shekh Baluch
Naqib Liyaqat Ali Kauda Luqman Kaudai Baluch
Raqib Wahid Bakhsh Taj Mohammed Baddani Brahui
Raqib Mohammed Ayub Mir Hayat Nausharwani Baluch
Jundy Mohammed Ali Mohammed Moosa Bajarzai Baluch
Naib Arif Imam Bakhsh Taj Mohammed Baluch Baluch
Arif Mohammed Yusuf Dawood Darzada Baluch
Raqib Ellahi Bakhsh Pasanvi Baluch
Naib Arif Abdul Hakim Mohammed Hashim Baluch
A special word of thanks is due to Professor J.H.Elfenbein, late of the University of Baluchistan in Quetta, for his enormous encouragement and patience and for the benefit his advice has been to this work.
Mistakes are, of course, the author’s own.


The Baluch have their home in Pakistan’s westernmost Province of Baluchistan, the Iranian Province of Baluchestan wa Sistan, the southern part of Afghanistan and in the south of the Turkmen SSR of the USSR. This enormous area is, due to low rainfall, mostly barren, and as a result a great number of Baluch have long emigrated and sought employment abroad, particularly in the Persian Gulf littoral. A considerable number have lived for generations in Oman. The size of the Baluch population is estimated at about four million, and, though it is the subject of much controversy, has never been determined due to the lack of an accurate census and the difficulty of distinguishing between different ethnic and linguistic groups. In 1981 it was estimated that the Baluch population of Pakistan was 2,500,000, of whom 700,000 lived in Karachi. About a further 1,000,000 Baluch live in Iran.
The country inhabited by the Baluch varies considerably in character, including the cultivated plains of the Punjab border and the Quetta area, the mountains of the Kalat highlands and Afghanistan, the rugged hill country of Makran and eastern Iran, and the level desert of the north west tip of Pakistan. It is one of the poorest and least developed regions of the world. Cultivation is confined to the plains, a few spots on the coastal strip and in the mountains, and to oases like Panjgur. Everywhere it is limited severely by the scarcity of water. Mineral and other resources remain undeveloped except for the natural gas field at Sui in the far north east of the country. Economic under-development is matched by political and social backward- ness.
The Baluch have lived in their present homes probably for over a thousand years, having migrated from the west, probably from the southern Caspian region, commencing the movement in about 600 AD. Evidence exists of their settlement in what is now Pakistan by about 800 AD, but it is likely that the tribes moved only gradually, by many stages, and independently of each other. There is evidence of both advances and retreats along the way. Some tribes seem to have crossed the Indus at some stage, then returned to Baluchistan at a later date. The areas at present occupied were settled by the 14th century. Stable government first appeared in 1660 AD when the sardar Mir Ahmed Khan I, founder of the confederacy of Brahui tribes and nominally a vassal of the rulers of Afghanistan, established his authority around Kalat. His successors gradually asserted control over a wider area, and the most important of them, Mir Nasir Khan I (reigned 1749-1795 AD), shook off the last vestiges of Afghan authority and established the independence of the Kalat Khanate. However, even in Nasir Khan’s day central control of the peripheral Baluch areas was nominal and subject to frequent dispute, and later the relations between the central government and the dependent rulers and tribal chiefs degenerated into open warfare. The 19th century saw a gradual growth of British influence, and although Kalat was never incorporated into the British Indian Empire, it enjoyed only a nominal independence by the last quarter of the century. A British Agent was resident at the Khan’s court, and the Khanate gave up some rights and lands around Quetta to the Empire. The Khans continued to rule the areas of Sarawan, Jahlawan, Las Bela, Kharan and Makran, with varying degrees of direct British interference, until British withdrawal in 1947. At its formation the Khan acceded to the state of Pakistan following a good deal of pressure from the new Pakistan government, and the Khanate ceased to exist as an independent entity in 1948.
Baluch society remains conservative and tribal, though in Makran a stratified system based upon social class exists. In Pakistan, outside the government-controlled towns (Quetta, Gwadar, Turbat, Panjgur and a few others) Pakistani law is weakly applied, and local jurisdiction, regularised in British days, remains paramount. At the lower levels of society there exists a fairly large group of non-Baluch artisans and families whose ancestors were slaves, including a good many of African stock.
All Baluch are Muslims of the Sunni sect, though in some places, particularly in Makran, adherents exist of the Zigri sect, which is held to be heretical by other Muslims. Violent persecution of Zigris has occurred even in the last twenty years. Some remnants of older beliefs remain. Men and women held to have magical or prophetic skills exist alongside Islamic mullahs, and the belief in jins (spirits) and the practice of magic are widespread.
The majority of the Baluch serving in the Oman come from the Baluchi-speaking tribes of Makran, many from the central Kech valley, some from the Panjgur area and others from the coast, where the Sultan of Oman possessed the port of Gwadar until 1958. Also found are a few soldiers from Brahui tribes, mostly Brahui speakers from the large Brahui area stretching south from Kalat to Khuzdar and Bela. The Brahui language is genetically unrelated to Baluchi, though it contains a large number of Baluchi loan words due to the mixing of the peoples over the last millenium. Despite their large common vocabulary, both languages are not mutually intelligible. Several dialects of Baluchi (which is an Indo-European language related to Persian) are to be heard in the Oman, but the major dialect is that of the Kech area, which includes Turbat.

Notes on pronunciation

The letters and marks used to transcribe Baluchi into a Roman alphabet are given below. Examples of English equivalents and explanations are given to aid pronunciation. Letters annotated with a + are pronounced as in normal English usage.
Letter English Equivalent/Explanation
Short Vowels a as in the a of above
i as in the i of sit
u as in the u of put
Long Vowels ā as in the a of last
e as in the a of fate
ī as in the i of machine
o as in the o of boat
ū as in the oo of soon
Dipthongs ay as in the i of island, with the i pronounced short
āy as in the i of island, with the I pronounced long
aw as in the ou of scrounge, with the ou pronounced short
Consonants b +
ch as in the ch of chip
ḍ not as in the English pronunciation, but with the tongue pressed forward against the top teeth pronounced similarly to d but with the tongue curled up back on to the ridge of the palate
f +
g +
gh as in the Arabic letter ghayn. It has no English approximation
h +
j +
k +
kh as in the Celtic ch of loch
l +
m +
n +
p +
r as in the rolled Scottish r
ṛ has no English approximation, and is pronounced with the tongue curled up back on to the ridge of the palate. It is best approximated by substituting the letter ḍ
s +
sh as in the sh of ship
ṭ not as in the English pronunciation, but with the tongue pressed forward against the top teeth pronounced similarly to t, but with the tongue curled up back on to the ridge of the palate
w +
y +
z +
zh as in the z of azure

Notes on the Vocabulary

The following abbreviations are used in the vocabulary:
(a) Adjective
(adv) Adverb
(c) Conjunction
(d) Demonstrative Adjective
(i) Interjection
(n) Noun
(part) Particle
(post) Postposition
(prep) Preposition
(pro) Pronoun
(v) Verb
The verbal noun and past root are shown for each verb (for example: “rawag, shut – to go”). The past roots of complex verbs are not given (for example: “koshish kanag – to try”), and will be found by referring to the auxiliary verb (in the example just given this will be “kanag, kut – to do”).
The pronunciation of some sounds varies, and below are listed some letters whose sounds may be confused. The alternative should be checked if a word is not found in the vocabulary.
“h” is often omitted, and if a word beginning with a vowel is not found the word should be checked under “h”.
“i” can be heard as a short “e”.
“kh” can be heard as “k”.
“p” can be heard as “f” or vice versa.
“r” [should have a dot below] can be heard as “d” [should have a dot below].
“u” can be heard as “o”.

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Posted by on September 24, 2011 in Balochi Language Teaching


Terms of Linguistics

By: Shoaib Shadab

Linguistics is a large field, or set of fields, involving the scientific study of language. At the interface between the sciences and humanities, linguistics is a battleground for anthropologists, philosophers, philologists, poets, theologians, psychologists, biologists, and neurologists, all of whom seek to describe language and how it works from their own perspective. The ever-receding and highly ambitious goal is a theory of how all aspects of language work.
Linguistics has many sub-fields. This includes comparative linguistics (which compares languages to each other), historical linguistics (history of language), and applied linguistics (putting linguistic theories to practical use). As a whole, linguistics concerns itself with three major problems: how we learn languages, how languages vary, and what is universal to language. Serious progress has been made on these questions during the 20th century, but there is still much more to investigate. Language is probably the most complex form of human behavior 1.
Many of the sub-fields of linguistics are arranged on a spectrum from concrete form to abstract meaning. Ranging from concrete to abstract, these include phonetics (the physical properties of speaking and listening), phonology (the study of specific sounds that make up words), morphology (the study of word structures and variations), syntax (how words are arranged into sentences), semantics (the meaning of words), pragmatics (how sentences are used to communicate messages in specific contexts), and discourse analysis (the highest level of analysis, looking at texts). Many students gain some exposure to these concepts as early as elementary school, but delving deeply into them tends to be a job for language majors or linguists.
Linguistic theories have many large holes which need to be filled, but possibly one of the most interesting is the question of the origin of language: we have little idea when it was. It could been as long as 2.2 million years ago, with early members of the genus Homo, like Homo habilis, or as recently as 200,000 years ago, when modern humans evolved in Africa. Because spoken language leaves no artifacts, analysis of early language use circumstantial evidence like tool complexity. Based on anatomical studies, many scientists suspect that Neanderthals had some rudimentary form of language, and crude reconstructions of Neanderthals pronouncing vowel noises have been synthesized in computers 2.

Accessibly written, with complicated terms and concepts explained in an easy to understandable way, Key Terms in Linguistics is an essential resource for students of linguistics.

Table of Contents

Introduction Key Terms

1. Phonetics and Phonology

Phonology is the study of sounds and speech patterns in language. The root “phone” in phonology relates to sounds and originates from the Greek word phonema which means sound. Phonology seeks to discern the sounds made in all human languages. The identification of universal and non-universal qualities of sounds is a crucial component in phonology as all languages use syllables and forms of vowels and consonants.
Syllables are involved in the timing of spoken language since speaking each word takes a portion of time. Syllables are units of measurement in language. Vowels allow air to escape from the mouth and nose unblocked, while consonants create more covering of the vocal tract by the tongue. The heard friction that is a consonant is made from the air that cannot escape as the mouth utters the consonant.
Phonemes are units of sound in a language that convey meaning. For example, changing a syllable in a word will change its meaning, such as changing the “a” in “mad” to an “o” to produce “mod”. A phoneme can also achieve no meaning by creating non-existent words such as by changing the “m” in “mad” or “mod” to a “j” to produce “jad” or “jod”. Phonemes differ from morphemes and graphemes. A morpheme refers to main grammar units, while a grapheme is the main unit of written language 3.

Phonetics is a discipline of linguistics that focuses on the study of the sounds used in speech. Phonetics is not concerned with the meaning of these sounds, the order in which they are placed, or any other factor outside of how they are produced and heard, and their various properties. Phonetics is closely related to phonology, which focuses on how sounds are understood in a given language, and semiotics, which looks at symbols themselves.
There are three major subfields of phonetics, each of which focuses on a particular aspect of the sounds used in speech and communication. Auditory phonetics looks at how people perceive the sounds they hear, acoustic phonetics looks at the waves involved in speech sounds and how they are interpreted by the human ear, and articulatory phonetics looks at how sounds are produced by the human vocal apparatus. Articulatory phonetics is where the majority of people begin their study of phonetics, and it has uses for many people outside of the field of linguistics. These include speech therapists, computer speech synthesizers, and people who are simply interested in learning how they make the sounds they do 4.

2. Grammar: Morphology and Syntax

Grammatology is the study of writing from a scientific viewpoint. It is not a judgement-based system, such as writing criticism, but instead studies the fundamental rules of how writing systems work. By understanding the components and structure of a writing system, grammatologists try to gain insight into the culture that created the system as well as how it was created and how it may evolve over time.
It may seem difficult to view writing as a subject of scientific study. More often, the art of writing is associated with creativity, individual style, and personal means of expression. Yet at the heart of any written language are set properties that govern the use of the writing system. By studying grammatology, it becomes apparent that creative writers are to some extent actually interpretive artists, using the tools of the writing system to display their ability. Rather than inventing written language, writers are creating variations and new rules for an established system 5.

Morphology is a field of linguistics focused on the study of the forms and formation of words in a language. A morpheme is the smallest indivisible unit of a language that retains meaning. The rules of morphology within a language tend to be relatively regular, so that if one sees the noun morphemes for the first time, for example, one can deduce that it is likely related to the word morpheme.
There are three main types of languages when it comes to morphology: two of these are polysynthetic, meaning that words are made up of connected morphemes. One type of polysynthetic language is a fusional or inflected language, in which morphemes are squeezed together and often changed dramatically in the process. English is a good example of a fusional language. The other type of polysynthetic language is an agglutinative language, in which morphemes are connected but remain more or less unchanged – many Native American languages, as well as Swahili, Japanese, German and Hungarian, demonstrate this. At the other end of the spectrum are the analytic or isolating languages, in which a great majority of morphemes remain independent words – Mandarin is the best example of this. Morphology studies all of these different types of languages and how they relate to one another as well 6.

Syntax is not prescriptivist – which is to say, it does not attempt to tell people what the objectively correct way to form a sentence is. Rather, it is descriptivist, in that it looks at how language is actually used and tries to come up with rules that successfully describe what various language communities consider to be grammatical or non-grammatical. Syntax deals with a number of things, all of which help to facilitate being understood and understanding language. Without rules of syntax, there would be no foundation from which to try to discern meaning from a bunch of words strung together, whereas with syntax, an infinite number of sentences are possible using a fairly small finite number of rules 7.

3. Semantics and Pragmatics

Semantics is the study of meaning in language. In particular, it is the study of how meaning is structured in sentences, phrases, and words. The English term “semantics” comes from the Greek semantikos which means to show or give signs. Semantics can be applied to different kinds of symbol systems, such as computer languages and similar coding systems. In general, however, semantics generally refers to how meaning is conveyed through the symbols of a written language. Semantics can be understood when it is contrasted with another linguistic term, syntax. Syntax is the study of rules regarding how symbols are arranged. Syntax is the study of the structure of a language while semantics is the study of the meaning of a language.
When studying semantics, it is important to recognize the generally accepted meaning of a word or term rather than the literal meaning. Take the term “water pill” for example. The term “water pill” is an accepted term for a kind of diuretic. These pills are often taken by people who, for one reason or another, are retaining too much water in their bodies. If we were to look at the literal meaning of the word “water pill,” the term would seem to indicate a pill filled with water. Of course, it is quite the opposite; when the pill is ingested it causes a person to lose water 8.

Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics which studies the meaning of language in its physical, epistemic, linguistic, and social contexts. A person can make a direct speech act, in which what is said is exactly what is meant, or an indirect speech act, where the meaning differs from the actual words spoken. These differences are typically automatically understood because of the context.
The four aspects of context can all affect pragmatics. Physical context refers to the setting of a conversation, such as a library, football field, or bedroom. Epistemic context refers to the background knowledge shared by a speaker and his or her audience, such as who is president or the basic rules of basketball. The information that has already been shared in the discussion is known as linguistic context, including all antecedents, topics of conversation, and intonations. A sarcastic, sad, or joking tone of voice can easily change the meaning of a sentence.
Social context is the term for the relationship between a speaker and an audience. A man will communicate differently when he is with his boss than with his friends. Neighbors sharing their summer vacation pictures, a teacher showing a documentary to his or her students, and teenagers watching a movie at a theater are all examples of different social contexts. Each situation would call for different styles of communication 9.

4. Sociolinguistics

Dialectology is a study of language that focuses on understanding dialects. It is part of a larger group of studies called sociolinguistics, which evaluates the many elements that shape communication in whole cultures or in smaller groups. When dialectologists study language they are principally concerned with identifying how the same language can vary, based on a number of circumstances. This does not simply mean pronunciation changes, but can also mean differences in word choice, spelling and other factors.
It can be a little difficult to determine what constitutes a dialect. Dialectology may define this as meeting several flexible standards. These include that the dialect can be well understood by speakers of the language who don’t use it, and that those using the dialect can understand the common language used by others. A good example of this might be someone who speaks in an American dialect but can understand a British television show; this is called mutual intelligibility.
Those interested in dialectology also take into account how speakers of the dialect would perceive their own language, and if they view it as part of a larger language or as separate from it. Additionally, dialect or language may sometimes be defined politically, even if it bears similarity to another language. Leaders of countries, for instance, could declare that two languages are separate, for a variety of reasons 10.

5. Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics is the study of how humans acquire, interpret, and use language. The study includes both the psychological factors and the neurobiological factors involved. As a field, it has grown out of interdisciplinary work in fields such as cognitive psychology, neuroscience, applied linguistics, and information theory.
Linguist and social critic Noam Chomsky was a pioneer in psycholinguistics, arguing that all normal humans have an innate language ability and that all human languages have a common underlying structure known as universal grammar. This directly challenges behavioral learning theories, which argue that language is not innate but learned step by step through imitation and reinforcement. This is an ongoing debate.
Language acquisition is an important subtopic in psycholinguistics, and has been most commonly studied in young children who are learning their native language. Second language acquisition is also a topic of study in this field, investigating questions such as why learning a second language is easier for children than for most adults. It also questions why non-native speakers can have trouble distinguishing between and pronouncing certain sounds necessary for meaningful speech in their second language when these sounds are not present or distinct in their native language 11.

6. Orthography

Orthography is a humanities discipline concerned with the study of writing systems. Most languages on Earth have at least one orthography, a writing system widely used to represent the language, and some languages are written with more than one writing system, creating several orthographies for people to choose from when communicating in these languages. In addition to studying modern languages, orthographers also look at historic languages and writing systems.
The word “orthography” comes from Greek roots meaning “correct writing.” Many people specifically identify orthography as the study of spelling, although this is a bit inaccurate. Orthographers do study spelling and are especially interested in the commonly accepted spellings used in a language’s writing system, but they also study much more than spelling. Spelling is only one aspect of orthography, and it was not very standardized for much of history; even now, there are a number of variations on words which many people think are spelled in only one way.
One aspect of orthography is punctuation, the examination of markings used on the page to add more depth to the text. Punctuation provides information about how a text should be read and interpreted, and can also provide critical insight into meaning. Orthographers are also interested in topics like capitalization and other norms of writing, including natural variations seen in various communities of language speakers.
The study of orthography can be applied in a number of ways. Orthographers can be a valuable part of the teams which put together dictionary entries, researching words to learn more about variant spellings, including historic spellings which are not widely accepted anymore. They also work on books about the history of language and word use, and on guides to language use, including style guides which provide people with information about punctuation, spelling, and other norms of the language.
Orthography is also used in the study of ancient languages. Orthographers are involved in the task of puzzling out ancient scripts, identifying variations in ancient languages, and attempting to trace the history of writing and the ways in which writing systems are adopted and adapted. Another topic of interest is writing systems which are used in several languages, such as the Roman alphabet, and the ways in which these writing systems are adapted and changed to meet the needs of entirely different languages. Things like accent marks and additional letters, for example, may be added for the convenience of speakers of a different language 12.

7. Discourse and Text Analysis

Discourse Analysis:
Discourse analysis is a method of studying and analyzing a text, be it in written or spoken form. This method does not really analyze a text when it comes to its structure and syntax, but the meaning behind these sentences; hence, the approach is often described as going “beyond the sentence.” Not only is discourse analysis a useful method in the field of linguistics, but is also applied in other areas such as social studies, psychology, and anthropology.
As the word “discourse” suggests, the method of discourse analysis focuses on any text that can provoke any kind of discourse, a response of any sort. In this way, it broadens the range of topics and subjects an analyst can use, such as in medical journals, newspaper articles, and even a president’s speech or a casual conversation. Take, for example, the medical journal: as the writer conveys his message through the book, the reader, in turn, responds by either understanding the words or ignoring it. In this way, discourse analysis looks further than the text by discovering what response, or discourse, the written word can incite and why 13.




The Balochi Nominal System in Diachronic Perspective

By:Agnes Korn

I: reconstruction of Middle Balochi case system
II: model for development Middle Balochi > contemporary Balochi

ad I.
1.: The basic nominal system of Balochi

direct oblique object genitive vocative
-¯a -¯ar¯a -ay, -¯e -∅
plural -¯an, -¯an¯a -¯an¯a, -¯anr¯a -¯an¯ı -¯an
1a the basic case system of contemporary Balochi
direct oblique object genitive
singular 1st man man¯a m(a)n¯ı
2nd ta(w) tar¯a ta¯ı, t¯ı
plural 1st (am)m¯a (am)m¯ar¯a (am)may, m¯e
2nd šum¯a šum¯ar¯a šumay, šum¯e
1b the basic pronominal system of contemporary Balochi
(bold letters: forms used in agent function (ergative constructions) and after prepositions)

2.: The nominal system of Middle West Iranian

direct oblique
nouns singular
plural -¯an
pronouns singular 1st Pa az, MP an man
2nd t¯u(?) t¯o
plural 1st am¯a(h)
2nd Pa išm¯a(h), MP ašm¯a(h)
2 nouns and personal pronouns in Manichaean Parthian and Middle Persian
Agnes Korn (Ravenna, October 2003) 2

3.: innovations in the Balochi nominal system

categories which are secondary to the system:
object case (missing in some dialects, optional in the rest)
vocative (sg. = dir., pl.: generalisation of the ending as plural marker)
endings which are new to the system: -¯a (ending after the indefinite article: k¯ar-¯e-¯a “a job”) -¯an¯ı ( + adjective suffix)

4.: The Middle Balochi case system

direct oblique Avestan
nouns singular
-ay -ahya
plural -¯an -¯an¯am
pronouns singular 1st man mana
2nd taw tauua
plural 1st (am)m¯a ahm¯ak em
2nd šum¯a xšm¯ak em
4 nominal system of *Middle Balochi Old Iranian genitive forms
outcome of the OIr. ending in the function of also in Zazaki:
direct oblique
nouns singular -∅-i
plural -i -an
pronouns singular 1st ez mı(n)
2nd tı, tu to
plural 1st m¯a
2nd sıma
5 nouns and personal pronouns in Zazaki
The Balochi Nominal System in Diachronic Perspective 3

ad II.

possible stages of development of the inflectional system

1.: generalising of the two-case-system into the pronominal domain

nouns direct oblique
plural -¯an
pronouns direct object
singular 1st man man¯a
2nd taw *taw¯a
plural 1st (am)m¯a
2nd šum¯a
6 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage A

2.: splitting of the oblique functions

nouns direct oblique genitive
-¯a -ay
plural -¯an
pronouns direct object
singular 1st man man¯a
2nd taw *taw¯a
plural 1st (am)m¯a
2nd šum¯a
7 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage B
Agnes Korn (Ravenna, October 2003) 4

3.: generalising of the genitive case

nouns direct oblique genitive
-¯a -ay
plural -¯an -¯an¯ı
pronouns direct object genitive
singular 1st man man¯a man¯ı
2nd taw *taw¯a *taw¯ı
plural 1st (am)m¯a (am)may
2nd šum¯a šumay
8 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage C

4.: generalising of the object case to the pl. pronouns

nouns direct oblique genitive
-¯a -ay
plural -¯an -¯an¯ı
pronouns direct object genitive
singular 1st man man¯a man¯ı
2nd taw, ta *taw¯a ta¯ı
plural 1st (am)m¯a (am)m¯ar¯a (am)may
2nd šum¯a šum¯ar¯a šumay
9 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage D

5.: object case also for nouns

direct oblique object genitive
nouns singular
-¯a -¯ar¯a -ay
plural -¯an(¯a) -¯an¯a, -¯anr¯a -¯an¯ı
pronouns singular 1st man man¯a m(a)n¯ı
2nd taw, ta tar¯a ta¯ı, t¯ı
plural 1st (am)m¯a (am)m¯ar¯a (am)may
2nd šum¯a šum¯ar¯a šumay
10 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage E = basic Balochi system


Balochi Roman orthography

The following Latin-script based orthography was adopted in the International Workshop on “Balochi Roman Orthography” (University of Uppsala, Sweden, May 28–30, 2000).

Alphabetical order:

a á b c d ď e f g ĝ h i í j k l m n o p q r ř s š t ť u ú v w x y z ž ay aw

(33 letters and 2 digraphs)

A/a amb (mango), angúr (grape), bagg (camel-caravan), sardar (naked-head), namb (mist).

Á/á dár (wood), árt (flour), bahá (price), pád (foot), áhag (to come), áhán (them).

B/b (be) barp (snow, ice), bám (dawn), bágpán (gardner), baktáwar (lucky).

C/c (che) cattr (umbrella), bacc (son), kárc (knife), Karácí, Kulánc, Cákar, Bálác.

D/d (de) dard (pain), drad (rainshower), dárú (medicine), wád (salt).

Ď/ď is same as Ř/ř (ře) so this latter is preferably used to simplify the orthography.

E/e eš (this), cer (below), eraht (end of date harvest), pešraw (leader, forerunner), kamer (ploughshare).

F/f (fe) To be used only in loan words where its use is inevitable, like Fráns (France), fármaysí (pharmacy).

G/g (ge) gapp (talk), ganok (mad), bág (garden), bagg (herd of camels), pádag (foot), Bagdád (Baghdad).

Ĝ/ĝ (like ĝhaen in Perso-Arabic script) Only in loan words and in eastern dialects.

H/h (he) hár (flood), máh (moon), koh (mountain), mahár (rein), hon (blood).

I/i (i) istál (star), idá (here), pit/piss (father), bigir (take), kirr (near).

Í/í (í) ímmán (faith), šír (milk), pakír (beggar), samín (breeze), gálí (carpet).

J/j (je) jang (war), janag (to beat), jing (lark), ganj (treasure), sajjí (roasted meat).

K/k (ke) Kirmán (Kirman), kárc (knife), náko (uncle), gwask (calf), kasán (small).

L/l (le) láp (stomach), gal (joy), gall (party, organization), gull (cheek), gul (rose).

M/m (me) mát/más (mother), bám (dawn), camm (eye), mastir (leader, bigger).

N/n (ne) nán/nagan/nagan (bread), nok (new, new moon), dann (outside), kwahn (old), náko (uncle).

O/o (o) oštag (to stop), ožnág (swim), roc (sun), dor (pain), socag (to burn).

P/p (pe) Pád (foot), šap (night), šapád (bare-footed), gapp (talk), aptád (70).

Q/q (qú) Used in loan words, like Qábús.

R/r (re) Rustum (a name), rek (sand), barag (to take away), girag (to get), garrag (to bray), gurrag (to roar), šarr (good), sarag (head), sarrag (a kind of donkey’s braying).

Ř/ř (ře) řák (post), řukkál (famine), gařř (urial), guřř (last), guřřag (to chop).

S/s (se) sarag (head), kass (someone), kasán (little), bass (enough), ás (fire).

Š/š (še) šap (night), šád (happy), meš (sheep), šuwánag (shepherd), wašš (happy, tasty).

T/t (te) tagird (mat), tahná (alone) tás (bowl), kilítt (kay), masítt (mosque), battí (lantern).

Ť/ť (ťe) ťung (hole), ťíllo (bell), baťť (cooked rice), baťťág (eggplant).

U/u uštir (camel), šumá (you), ustád (teacher), gužn (hunger), buz (goat).

Ú/ú (ú, sounds like the “oo” in English word “root”) úrt (thin), zúrag (to take), bizú (take), dúr (distant).

V/v (ve) used in loanwords only, like in the English word service, very.

W/w (we) warag (food, to eat), wardin (provision), dawár (abode), wád (salt), kawwás (learned).

X/x (khe) Xudá (God),

Y/y (ye) yád (remembrance), yár (friend), yázdah (eleven), biryání (roasted meat), raydyo (radio), yakk (one).

Z/z (ze) zarr (monay), zí (yesterday), muzz (wages), moz (banana), nazzíkk (nearby), bazgar (tenant).

Ž/ž (že) žand (tired), žáng (bells), pažm (wool), gažžag (to swell), gužnag (hungry).

ay (h)ayrán (surprise), ayrát (distribution), say (3), may (our), kay (who), šumay (your).

Aw/aw kawr (river), hawr (rain), kissaw (story), dawl (sort), dawr (jump), awlád (off-spring), kawl (promise), gawk (neck).


Teaching materials of Balochi language

1.Title: The Baloch and Their Neighbours: Ethnic and Linguistic Contact in Balochistan in Historical and Modern Times

Authors: Jahani, Carina; Korn, Agnes; Gren-Eklund, Gunilla
Year: 2003
Pages: 380

Abstract A collection of articles on Baluchi. Includes sections on historical linguistics; language contact in modern times; and history, culture, and the future of the Baluchi language. Articles deal with the structure of past and present stems, the verbal system of Baluchi, the Sarawani dialect of Baluchi and Persian influences on it, the case system in Iranian Baluchi, the Baluchi people in the Arabian Gulf States, the Baluchi language in Turkmenistan, and more. Concludes with a bibliography and a series of maps.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization), Persian (Romanization)
Materials Grammar
Subjects Colloquial Language; Culture and Customs; Grammar – Descriptive; Pronunciation
ISBN 3895003662

2.Title: Language in Society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi

Authors: Jahani, Carina
Year: 2001
Pages: 129

Abstract A series of eight sociolinguistic essays on Baluchi. Includes essays dealing with mother-tongue education and language maintenance, Baluchi orthography in Turkmenistan, unofficial and official efforts to promote a Latin script for Baluchi, peripheral Baluchi communities, and literature in society. Concludes with an index, a bibliography, and a map of Baluchistan.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Cultural Materials; Grammar
Subjects Culture and Customs; Orthography
ISBN 9155446795

3.Title: English Balochi Colloquial Dictionary [Volume: 1]

Authors: Gilbertson, George Waters; Khan, Ghano
Year: 1996
Pages: 400

Abstract The first volume of a two-volume one-way English-Baluchi dictionary originally published in 1925. Entries include an English head term, an example sentence in Baluchi, a colloquial English translation of the sentence, and a word-by-word parsed translation of the sentence. Entries also mention, where known, the origin of the word.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Dictionary
4.Title: English Balochi Colloquial Dictionary [Volume: 2]

Authors: Gilbertson, George Waters; Khan, Ghano
Year: 1996
Pages: 426

Abstract The second volume of a two-volume one-way English-Baluchi dictionary originally published in 1925. Entries include an English head term, an example sentence in Baluchi, a colloquial English translation of the sentence, and a word-by-word parsed translation of the sentence. Entries also mention, where known, the origin of the word. Appendices include a discussion of Balouhi accent, and notes on the prefixes, suffixes, and particles used in Baluchi.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Dictionary
5.Title: Comparative Probe in the Iranian Dialects: Khashi Dialect of the Baluchi Language [Volume: 10]

Authors: Guilani, Jami Shakibi; Kordi, Qani
Year: 1992
Pages: 173

Abstract A comparative analysis of the Baluchi dialect spoken in Khash. The grammar is based on the speech of one informant. Includes a section on phonology, a grammar covering the major grammatical categories, a text, and a glossary. Information is presented by lists of examples in each category in comparison to English and another Iranian language.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Grammar
Subjects Conjugation; Grammar – Descriptive; Pronunciation; Vocabulary; Word Order
6.Title A Contrastive Analysis of Balochi and Urdu

Authors: Bashir, Elena L.
Year: 1991
Pages: 333

Abstract A comparative grammar of Baluchi and Urdu. Includes chapters on phonology, nouns, adjectives, adverb agreement, verbs and their categories, syntax, semantics, and more. Appendices include a discussion of the gender of the most frequently used Urdu words in a graded reader, the gender of some English words in Urdu, the gender of nouns among 500 most frequently used words in an Urdu newspaper, and specialized words with certain suffixes. Concludes with a glossary of linguistic terms and a bibliography.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization), Urdu (Romanization)
Materials Grammar
Subjects Agreement; Conjugation; Declension; Grammar – Descriptive; Pronunciation; Vocabulary; Word Formation; Word Order
Available From Academy for Educational Development, 1255 23rd Steet NW, Washington, DC 20037
7.Title: A Contrastive Analysis of Balochi and Urdu

Authors: Bashir, Elena L.
Year: 1991

Pages 333Abstract A contrastive grammar of Baluchi and Urdu. Contains chapters covering phonology, nouns, adjectives, adverb agreement, verbs and their categories, syntax, semantics, and suggested scope and sequence for Urdu as a second language. Includes appendices on the gender of nouns in Urdu. Concludes with a bibliography.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization), Urdu (Romanization)
Materials Grammar
Subjects Grammar – Descriptive
Available From Academy for Educational Development, 1255 23rd Steet NW, Washington, DC 20037
8.Title: Basic Balochi: An Introductory Course

Authors: Farrell, Tim
Year: 1990

Pages: 90Abstract A course in Baluchi for the beginning student containing twelve lessons. Each lesson includes a dialogue, one or two grammatical points, and a list of new vocabulary. The course ends with a grammar summary and a topical vocabulary containing words in categories such as verbs, people and relations, nature, body parts, animals, food, household items, clothing, adjectives, adverbs of manner, quantifiers, time words, days, months, and culture.
Instructional Level Beginning
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Textbook
Subjects Conjugation; Dialogues; Grammar Instruction; Pronunciation; Vocabulary; Word Order

9.Title Standardization and Orthography in the Balochi LanguageAuthors: Jahani, Carina
Year: 1989
Pages: 268

Abstract A linguistic examination of language standardization and the development of an orthography as concerns Baluchi. Discusses the theory of language standardization and orthography, the development of a standard literary language in other Iranian languages, a look at Baluchi dialects and phonology, an examination of language standardization in Baluchi, and Baluchi orthography. An appendix includes sample texts in different dialects of Baluchi, written in Arabic and romanized scripts. Concludes with a bibliography, maps, and an index.
Languages Baluchi (Arabic; Romanization)
Materials Grammar
Subjects Orthography
ISBN 9155424872
10.Title A Grammar, Phrase Book and Vocabulary of Baluchi: as Spoken in the Sultanate of Oman

Authors: Collett, N.A.
Year: 1986
Pages :178

Abstract A grammar, phrasebook of military terms, and short glossary of Baluchi. Begins with a description of Baluchi pronunciation. The grammar includes chapters on the articles and demonstrative adjectives, the noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the verb, the adverb, prepositions and particles, number and time, and courtesy and custom. The phrase book includes phrases to deal with situations such as with your orderly, meetings and social occasions, a party, on parade, inspections, interview on joining, interviews for courses and departures, interviews for compassionate problems and leave, orders, office routine, at the range, on exercises, sports, in the classroom, on operations, building defenses, civilian relations, helicopters and aircraft, and patrols and ambushes. Entries in the glossary include a head term and a simple translation.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Dictionary; Grammar; Phrasebook
Subjects Grammar – Descriptive; Pronunciation; Vocabulary; Word Order
ISBN 0950934518
11.Title Baluchi Glossary: A Baluchi-English Glossary: Elementary Level

Authors: Ahmad, Mumtaz
Year: 1985
Pages: 150

Abstract A one-way Baluchi-English dictionary containing approximately 2,500 entries. Entries include a Baluchi head term written in the Arabic script, the head term written in romanized form, part of speech, and an English translation. An introduction includes a note on the transcription used and a chart of the pronunciation of the vowels of Baluchi.
Languages Baluchi (Arabic; Romanization)
Materials Dictionary
Available From Dunwoody Press, 6564 Loisdale Court Suite 800, Springfield, Virginia 22150, Phone: 703-797-7400 703-797-7400 , Fax: 301-949-1816, Website:
ISBN 093174508X
12.Title The Grammar of Balochi Language

Authors: Naseer Khan, Agha Mir
Year: 1984
Pages: 193

Abstract A grammar of the Baluchi language. Includes chapters on nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, verb tenses, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, important rules, infinitives, and active participles. For each phenomenon discussed there is a short grammatical description of the phenomenon and a series of examples to illustrate the topic.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Grammar
Subjects Conjugation; Grammar – Descriptive; Pronunciation
13.Title Baluchi

Authors: Nawata, Tetsuo
Year: 1981
Pages: 46

Abstract A descriptive grammar of Baluchi. Includes a discussion of phonology, morphology, sentence structure, a comparative list of Baluchi and Afghan Persian vocabulary, and a set of short texts with grammatically parsed translations. The section on morphology includes detailed information on the Baluchi verb.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Grammar
Subjects Conjugation; Declension; Grammar – Descriptive; Pronunciation; Vocabulary; Word Order
Available From Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 4-chome Nishigahara, Tokyo, Japan 114
14.Title: Iranian Lexical Elements in Brāhūī

Authors: Rossi, Adriano V.
Year: 1979
Pages: 360

Abstract A linguistic study of Iranian lexical borrowings in Brahui. Includes several alphabetical lists of Brahui words borrowed from Baluchi, Persian, and other Iranian languages. Each entry in the lists includes the Brahui term, the meaning, the origin of the word, and attestations of the item in Baluchi, Persian, and other Iranian languages with the different meanings in these languages included where relevant.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization), Brahui (Romanization), Persian (Romanization)
Materials Grammar
Subjects Etymology; Vocabulary; Word Formation
15.Title A Course in Baluchi [Volume: 1]

Authors: Barker, Muhammad Abd-Al-Rahman; Mengal, Aqil Khan
Year: 1969
Pages: 526

Abstract The first volume of a two-volume course in Baluchi for the beginning student. Contains twenty lessons. The first few lessons concentrate on the pronunciation and basic grammar of Baluchi. Later lessons begin with dialogues illustrating new grammar and vocabulary as well as cultural phenomena of the Baluchi people. Lessons also include grammatical notes, and conclude with a series of drills and exercises and a vocabulary list.
Instructional Level Beginning
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Textbook
Subjects Conjugation; Culture and Customs; Dialogues; Exercises and Drills; Grammar Instruction; Pronunciation; Vocabulary; Word Order
16.Title A Course in Baluchi [Volume: 2]

Authors: Barker, Muhammad Abd-Al-Rahman; Mengal, Aqil Khan
Year: 1969
Pages: 669

Abstract The second volume of a two-volume course in Baluchi for the beginning student. Contains ten lessons. This volume presents the Arabic script as used for Baluchi. The first lesson presents the script, while other lessons present texts in Baluchi using the Arabic script. Readings include fables, Baluchi cultural customs, history, folktales, modern short stories, classical poetry, modern poetry, and more. Lessons also include vocabulary lists and exercises.
Instructional Level Beginning
Languages Baluchi (Arabic; Romanization)
Materials Textbook
Subjects Conjugation; Culture and Customs; Dialogues; Exercises and Drills; Grammar Instruction; Pronunciation; Script Instruction; Vocabulary; Word Order
17.Title Popular Poetry of the Baloches

Authors: Dames, M. Longworth
Year: 1967
Pages: 428

Abstract A reader of Baluchi originally published in 1905. Contains two volumes, bound together. The first volume contains English translations of the Baluchi selections. The second volume contains the original Baluchi texts. Texts include heroic and epic ballads, tribal poems and war ballads, romantic ballads, love songs, religious poems and legends of saints, legends in prose, and lullabies and riddles. The volume concludes with a glossary of rare and obsolete words and an index. The two volumes also include discussions of the classification of Baluchi poetry and the language and forms of Baluchi poetry.
Instructional Level Intermediate / Advanced
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Reader
19.Title A Vocabulary of Marw Baluchi

Authors: Elfenbein, Josef
Year: 1963
Pages: 106

Abstract A one-way English-Baluchi dictionary of the Marw dialect of Baluchi. Head terms are taken from five Baluchi texts. Entries include a Baluchi head term, a citation of the text the head word was taken from, an English translation, and an etymology, where known. An English index is given in the back of the book.
Languages Baluchi (Romanization)
Materials Dictionary
Subjects Etymology

20.Title: The Jesus Film Project: video website

Authors: Krish, John; Sykes, Peter

Abstract A two-hour docudrama film about the life of Jesus, based on the Gospel of Luke. Produced by Warner Brothers, directed by John Krish and Peter Sykes, and originally released in 1979, this American film is the focus of a large translation effort to dub it into as many languages as possible. Although it is a proselytization project, from a language teaching perspective, this work represents the only readily available film for hundreds of less commonly taught languages, including many dialectal variants. The film can be viewed online in RealVideo format. The site also offers streaming audio, as well as a one-hour children’s version of the video for some of the languages. Users can purchase versions on portable media such as DVDs through the site’s online shop.

Languages Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Algerian, Arabic, Chadian, Arabic, Egyptian, Arabic, Iraqi, Arabic, Modern Standard, Arabic, Moroccan, Arabic, Palestinian, Arabic, Sudanese, Arabic, Tunisian, Armenian, Assamese, Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Bambara, Bashkir, Basque, Belarusian, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bosnian, Brahui, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Cantonese, Catalan, Cebuano, Chechen, Chewa, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dari, Dutch, Estonian, Ewe, Finnish, Fula, Georgian, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hebrew, Hindi, Hmong, Hungarian, Icelandic, Igbo, Ilocano, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Kannada, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Khmer, Korean, Kurdish, Kyrgyz, Lao, Latvian, Lingala, Lithuanian, Luo, Macedonian, Maithili, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Mandarin, Maori, Marathi, Mende, Mongolian, Nahuatl, Navajo, Nepali, Norwegian, Nyanja, Ojibwe, Oriya, Oromo, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Quechua, Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Serbian, Serbian/Croatian, Shona, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Sotho, Swahili, Swedish, Tagalog, Tajik, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Thai, Tigrinya, Tswana, Turkish, Turkmen, Twi, Uighur, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yoruba, Zulu

21.Title: Digital Dictionaries of South Asia
Authors: Digital South Asia Library

Abstract A website containing online, searchable versions of several print dictionaries for languages such as Baluchi, Bengali, Kashmiri, Marathi, Nepali, Pashto, Persian, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, and more. More dictionaries for more languages are in the planning stages. Most languages offer a choice of dictionaries and glossaries one can use to find words. Dictionary entries appear in romanized scripts and in native scripts using Unicode fonts.

Languages Baluchi, Bengali, Kashmiri, Marathi, Nepali, Pashto, Persian, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu
Materials Dictionary
22.Title Joint Language University

Abstract A portal that aggregates materials, developed in branches of the U.S. government and military, for language self instruction. Catalog available to users with a .gov or .mil email address. Citations to each resource display Interagency Language Roundtable proficiency level, type of material (course, self-assessment tool, cultural material), subject, and synopsis. Site offers 200-hour beginner courses in about 30 languages and intermediate self-assessment tools in about 20. Cultural materials comprise authentic source texts and audio recordings, the majority for learners at ILR level 2+ or 3.

Languages Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Arabic, Modern Standard, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Bengali, Bulgarian, Burmese, Cantonese, Chechen, Dari, Georgian, Greek, Modern, Gujarati, Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hebrew, Hindi, Ilocano, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Kazakh, Khmer, Korean, Kurdish, Mandarin, Nepali, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Quechua, Russian, Sinhalese, Somali, Swahili, Tagalog, Tajik, Tamil, Thai, Turkish, Turkmen, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese
Materials Cultural Materials; Supplementary Materials; Textbook

Balochi language – general

• Bahar, Ghaus 1998. Balochi lik war
• Bakhsh, M., Farrell, T. and Razzaq, A. (Forthcoming) Balochi Ganj – A Balochi to Balochi and English Dictionary,
• Baloch , Abdul Qayyum. 1972. Balochi Zahg Balad.
• Balochi Rasm ul-Xatte Kanwinshin, 1972. Quetta: the Balochistan Text Book Board.
• Baluch, Mohammad Sardar Khan. 1958 (3rd Edition 1984). History of Baluch Race and Baluchistan, Quetta: Nisa Traders.
• Baluch, Mohammad Sardar Khan. 1984. A Literary History of the Baluchis, 2 Vols. Quetta, Pakistan: The Baluchi Academy.
• Barker, M.A.R. and Mengal, A.Q. 1969. Buni Kitab: A course in Baluchi.
• Dashtiari, Saba. 1995. Ed. Balochi Zubane Akibat, Karachi: Jadgal Chap o Shing, Lyari.
• Elfenbein, J. 1966. The Baluchi language. A dialectology with texts
• Elfenbein, J. 1983. A Baluchi Miscellany of Erotica and Poetry: Codex Oriental Additional 24048 of the British Library, Supplemento n. 35 agli ANNALI – Vol. 43, fasc. 2. Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale.
• Farrell, T. 1995. ‘Fading Ergativity? A Study of Ergativity in Balochi’ In David C. Bennett, Theodora Bynon, and B. George Hewitt, Eds. Subject, Voice and Ergativity: Selected Essays, p. 218-243. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. ISBN 0-7286-0238-5.
• Frye, R.N. 1961. ‘Remarks on Baluchi history.’ CAJ. 6.
• Gilbertson, G.W. 1923. The Balochi language.
• Grierson, G.A. 1921. ‘Balochi’ in the Linguistic Survey of India, X.
• Hashmi. S., Sayad Ganj The Balochi-Balochi Dictionary, Karachi 2000.
• Hashmi, Sayyid, 1960 Balochi Bungeji
• Hashmi, Sayyid, 1962. Balochi syahage rast nabisag reprinted 1990.
• Jahani, Carina. 1989. Standardization and Orthography in The Balochi Language. Uppsala.
• Kundi, Mansoor Akbar. 1993. (2nd Edition 1994) Balochistan: A Socio-Cultural and Political Analysis, Quetta: Qasim Printers.
• Mahmoodzahi, M., Vazheh Nameh Rishe Shenasaneh Zaban e Balochi, M.A. thesis (unpublished), Shiraz 1991.
• Mahmoodzahi, M., Moghyeseh Zaban e Balochi ba Zabanhaye Iraniye bastan, (Comparative study between Balochi and Old Iranian Languages) PhD. Thesis (unpublished), Tehran 1999.
• Marri, Mir Khuda Bakhsh. 1963. Qadim Balochi Shairi, (Urdu Translation), Quetta: International Press.
• Rahman, Tariq. 1996. Language and Politics in Pakistan, Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Rooman, M. Anwar. 1979. Education in Balochistan, Quetta: Gosha-e-Adab.
• Shahwani, Aseer Abdul Qadir. 1998. Balochi Zuban o Adab, Quetta: Balochi Academy.
• Titus, Paul. 1997. Marginality and Modernity: Ethnicity and Change in Post-Colonial Balochistan, Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Zarubin, I.I. 1932. Baluchi tales.

Textbooks/handbooks and books for learning Balochi:
• Baloch, M. B., Baloch, A. R., and Farrell T., 1990. Miiraas (“Inheritance” – A Children’s story book in Balochi.) Kalakot Coaching Centre, Karachi.
• Baloch, M. B., Baloch, A. R., and Farrell T., 1990. Jaan Mohammad, Anwar o Har, (“Jan Mohammad, Anwar and the donkey” – A Children’s story book in Balochi.) Kalakot Coaching Centre, Karachi.
• Baloch, M. B., Baloch, A. R., and Farrell T., 1990. Makisk mae dushman (“Flies our enemies” – A health/story book in Balochi.) Kalakot Coaching Centre, Karachi.
• Baloch, M. B., Baloch, A. R., and Farrell T., 1991. Sheikh Callii o Roghin (“Sheikh Challi and the ghee” – A Children’s story book in Balochi.) Kalakot Coaching Centre, Karachi.
• Baloch, M. B., Baloch, A. R., and Farrell T., 1993. Laap Ricage Biimaarii (A Health book on Diarrhoea in Balochi.) Kalakot Coaching Centre, Karachi.
• Barakzai, Akbar. 1963 Zahg Balad.Partially reprinted in 1987 by Baloch Itahad, Kuwait.
• Gul Rang Lal Mohd and Yasmin. 1995a Petap. Azat Jamaldini Academy, Karachi.
Gul Rang Lal Mohd and Yasmin. 1995b Buni Kitab. Azat Jamaldini Academy, Karachi.
• Meyar, Ghulam Mahi Uddin. 1986. Siken. Sharp Kitab Jah, Karachi.
• Nadwi, Khair Mohammad. 1951. Balochi Qaidah. Maktabah Saughat, Karachi.
• Nadwi, Khair Mohammad. 1978. Balochie Awli Kitab. Karachi: Maktabah Saughat.
• Rind, Lal Baxsh. 1983a. Balochi Bwan. Karachi: Balochi Publications.
• Rind, Lal Baxsh. 1983b. Balochi Hel Bikan. Karachi: Balochi Publications.
• Sadiq, Abdul Halim, and Temur Khan. 1987. Buni Kitab, (“Basic Book” – A Primer in Western Balochi). Quetta: Shal Association Pakistan.



By: Shoaib Shadab (M.Phil Scholar)
Research Associate Balochi Language
International Islamic University, Islamabad


Duration of the Program: 1 Semester (6 Months)
No. of Courses: 3
Total Credit Hours: 9
Key of the Course Code:
B: Balochi
CC: Name of the Program
F: Foreigners
100: Digital Code for CCF
CH: Credit Hours
Tens: No. of Semester
Ones: No. of Course
_________ ________________________________

Detail of the Courses

BCCF 111 Listening and Speaking Skills 3CH
BCCF 112 Reading and Writing Skills 3CH
BCCF 113 Grammar 3CH

Duration of the Program: 2 Semesters (1 Year)
No of Courses: 6
Total Credit Hours:
Key of the Course Code:
B: Balochi
DC: Name of the Program
F: Foreigners
200: Digital Code for DCF
CH: Credit Hours
Tens: No. of Semester
Ones: No. of Course
First Semester
BDCF 211 Oral Skills 3CH
BDCF 212 Reading and Writing Skills 3CH
BDCF 213 Balochi Grammar 3CH

Second Semester
BCDF 214 Advance Oral Skill 3CH
BCDF 215 Advance Reading and writing Skills 3CH
BCDF 216 Advance Balochi Grammar 3CH

Duration of the Program: 4 Semesters (2 Years)
No of Courses: 20
Total Credit Hours: 60

Key of the Course Code:
B: Balochi
AD: Name of the Program
F: Foreigners
300: Digital Code For ADF
CH: Credit Hours
Tens: No. of Semester
Ones: No. of Course
Firs Semester
BADF 311 Listening Skills 3 CH
BADF 312 Speaking Skills.1 3 CH
BADF 313 Reading Skills.1 3 CH
BADF 314 Writing Skills.1 3 CH
BADF 315 Grammar 3 CH

Second Semester
BADF 321 Oral Skills 3 CH
BADF 322 Speaking Skills.2 3 CH
BADF 323 Reading Skills.2 3 CH
BADF 324 Writing Skills.2 3 CH
BADF 325 Advance Balochi Grammar 3 CH

Third Semester
BADF 331 Translation 3CH
BADF 332 Professional/ Business Writing Skills 3CH
BADF 333 Advance Oral Skill 3CH
BADF 334 Computer Composing in Roman Balochi 3CH
BADF 335 Dialect Study of Balochi Language 3CH

Forth Semester
BADF 341 Interpretation 3CH
BADF 342 Computer Composing in Balochi Language 3CH
BADF 343 Area Study of Balochistan 3CH
BADF 344 Culture Study of Balochistan 3CH
BADF 345 Introduction to Balochi Literature 3CH

Duration of the Program: 8 Semesters (4 Years)
No of Courses: 40
Foundation Courses: 4 Semesters
Advance Courses: 4 Semesters
Foundation Courses: 60 Credit Hours
Advance Course: 60 Credit Hours
Total Credit Hours: 120
__________ _________________________________

Key of the Course Code:
B: Balochi
BS: Name of the Program
F: Foreigners
400: Digital Code for BSF
CH: Credit Hours
Tens: No: of Semester
Ones: No: of Course

Firs Semester
BSBF 411 Listening Skills.1 3 CH
BSBF 412 Speaking Skills.1 3 CH
BSBF 413 Reading Skills.1 3 CH
BSBF 414 Writing Skills.1 3 CH
BSBF 415 Grammar 1 3 CH

Second Semester
BSBF 421 Listening Skills.2 3 CH
BSBF 422 Speaking Skills.2 3 CH
BSBF 423 Reading Skills.2 3 CH
BSBF 424 Writing Skills.2 3 CH
BSBF 425 Grammar. 2 3 CH

Third Semester
BSBF 431 Oral Skills 3 CH
BSBF 432 Advance Speaking Skills. 1 3 CH
BSBF 433 Advance Reading Skills. 1 3 CH
BSBF 434 Advance Writing Skills. 1 3 CH
BSBF 435 Advance Balochi Grammar 1 3 CH

Forth Semester
BSBF 441 Advance Oral Skills.1 3 CH
BSBF 442 Advance Speaking Skills.2 3 CH
BSBF 444 Advance Reading Skills.2 3 CH
BSBF 445 Advance Writing Skills.2 3 CH
BSBF 446 Advance Balochi Grammar 2 3 CH

Fifth Semester
BSBF 451 Translation 3CH
BSBF 452 Professional/ Business Writing Skills 1 3CH
BSBF 453 Advance Oral Skill 2 3CH
BSBF 454 Computer Composing in Roman Balochi 3CH
BSBF 455 Historical Background of Balochi Language 3CH

Sixth Semester
BSBF 461 Interpretation 3CH
BSBF 462 Professional/ Business Writing Skills 2 3CH
BSBF 463 Computer Composing in Balochi Language 3CH
BSBF 464 Dialect Study of Balochi Language 3CH
BSBF 465 Area Study of Balochi Language 3CH

Seventh Semester
BSBF 471 Area Study of Baloch Populations 3CH
BSBF 472 Geographical Study of Balochistan 3CH
BSBF 473 History of war in Balochistan 3CH
(Sikedar e Azum 331 to Nawab Akbar Bugti 2006)
BSBF 474 Introduction to Balochi Literature 3CH
BSBF 475 Socio Political Study of South Asia 3CH

Eighth Semester
BSBF 481 Political Study of Balochistan 3CH
BSBF 482 Culture Study of Balochistan 3CH
BSBF 483 History of Balochistan 3CH
BSBF 484 Social Study of Balochistan 3CH
BSBF 485 Introduction to Cultural Diversity of South Asia 3CH


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