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The Balochi Nominal System in Diachronic Perspective

14 Apr

By:Agnes Korn

I: reconstruction of Middle Balochi case system
II: model for development Middle Balochi > contemporary Balochi

ad I.
1.: The basic nominal system of Balochi

direct oblique object genitive vocative
singular
-∅
-¯a -¯ar¯a -ay, -¯e -∅
plural -¯an, -¯an¯a -¯an¯a, -¯anr¯a -¯an¯ı -¯an
1a the basic case system of contemporary Balochi
direct oblique object genitive
singular 1st man man¯a m(a)n¯ı
2nd ta(w) tar¯a ta¯ı, t¯ı
plural 1st (am)m¯a (am)m¯ar¯a (am)may, m¯e
2nd šum¯a šum¯ar¯a šumay, šum¯e
1b the basic pronominal system of contemporary Balochi
(bold letters: forms used in agent function (ergative constructions) and after prepositions)

2.: The nominal system of Middle West Iranian

direct oblique
nouns singular
-∅
-∅
plural -¯an
pronouns singular 1st Pa az, MP an man
2nd t¯u(?) t¯o
plural 1st am¯a(h)
2nd Pa išm¯a(h), MP ašm¯a(h)
2 nouns and personal pronouns in Manichaean Parthian and Middle Persian
Agnes Korn (Ravenna, October 2003) 2

3.: innovations in the Balochi nominal system

categories which are secondary to the system:
object case (missing in some dialects, optional in the rest)
vocative (sg. = dir., pl.: generalisation of the obl.pl. ending as plural marker)
endings which are new to the system:
obl.sg. -¯a (ending after the indefinite article: k¯ar-¯e-¯a “a job”)
gen.pl. -¯an¯ı (obl.pl. + adjective suffix)

4.: The Middle Balochi case system

direct oblique Avestan
nouns singular
-∅
-ay -ahya
plural -¯an -¯an¯am
pronouns singular 1st man mana
2nd taw tauua
plural 1st (am)m¯a ahm¯ak em
2nd šum¯a xšm¯ak em
4 nominal system of *Middle Balochi Old Iranian genitive forms
outcome of the OIr. gen.sg. ending in the function of obl.sg. also in Zazaki:
direct oblique
nouns singular -∅-i
plural -i -an
pronouns singular 1st ez mı(n)
2nd tı, tu to
plural 1st m¯a
2nd sıma
5 nouns and personal pronouns in Zazaki
The Balochi Nominal System in Diachronic Perspective 3

ad II.

possible stages of development of the inflectional system

1.: generalising of the two-case-system into the pronominal domain

nouns direct oblique
singular
-∅
-ay
plural -¯an
pronouns direct object
singular 1st man man¯a
2nd taw *taw¯a
plural 1st (am)m¯a
2nd šum¯a
6 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage A

2.: splitting of the oblique functions

nouns direct oblique genitive
singular
-∅
-¯a -ay
plural -¯an
pronouns direct object
singular 1st man man¯a
2nd taw *taw¯a
plural 1st (am)m¯a
2nd šum¯a
7 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage B
Agnes Korn (Ravenna, October 2003) 4

3.: generalising of the genitive case

nouns direct oblique genitive
singular
-∅
-¯a -ay
plural -¯an -¯an¯ı
pronouns direct object genitive
singular 1st man man¯a man¯ı
2nd taw *taw¯a *taw¯ı
plural 1st (am)m¯a (am)may
2nd šum¯a šumay
8 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage C

4.: generalising of the object case to the pl. pronouns

nouns direct oblique genitive
singular
-∅
-¯a -ay
plural -¯an -¯an¯ı
pronouns direct object genitive
singular 1st man man¯a man¯ı
2nd taw, ta *taw¯a ta¯ı
plural 1st (am)m¯a (am)m¯ar¯a (am)may
2nd šum¯a šum¯ar¯a šumay
9 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage D

5.: object case also for nouns

direct oblique object genitive
nouns singular
-∅
-¯a -¯ar¯a -ay
plural -¯an(¯a) -¯an¯a, -¯anr¯a -¯an¯ı
pronouns singular 1st man man¯a m(a)n¯ı
2nd taw, ta tar¯a ta¯ı, t¯ı
plural 1st (am)m¯a (am)m¯ar¯a (am)may
2nd šum¯a šum¯ar¯a šumay
10 Middle Balochi > Balochi: stage E = basic Balochi system

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