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Monthly Archives: December 2011

A Brief History of Baluch Tribes

“…Such a system might work well so long as there was a strong ruler in Kalat, but once his power diminished, the natural result was civil war…”

R. Hughes-Buller, 1901

The tribes inhabiting Baluchistan came under the identical pressures influencing the tribes of Afghanistan during their violent histories. Living at the crossroads of Central Asia had one great disadvantage, and this involved the repeated and serial invasions by migrating tribes pressed from their original homelands and armies bent upon conquest. Generally, these invasions came from the west – along the same route of the tribal migrations. In southern Afghanistan, individual tribes began to organize themselves into larger aggregations in hopes of defending themselves against the repeated threats emerging from the west of their tribal areas. Only the armies of Alexander the Great entered the region using the “northern route,” and even he chose the more obvious southern route as his men struggled to depart from Central Asia. The terrain of the south, less the large desert areas, wasban ideal invasion route and army after army used it.
The Baluch tribes also migrated into the region from the west. Their traditions say they originated from the vicinity of Aleppo, Syria, while scholars studying comparative linguistics suggest their origin in an area of the Caspian Sea, possibly a waypoint with extended residence before being pressed further east by the arrival of more aggressive migrants. Regardless, the Baluch tribes were present in Baluchistan in 1000 A.D. and were mentioned in Firdausi’s book, Shahnamah (the Book of Kings), and like all invading armies they were described as being aggressive, “like battling rams all determined on war.”1
As the last of the migrating tribes to arrive, the Baluch had to displace or assimilate the tribes that were already present and occupying the land. Opposed by the powerful Brahui2 tribes, the Baluch were able to overcome them until an extended civil war broke out between the Rind and Lashari Baluch tribes which weakened them substantially.
After defeating the Brahui under their chief, Mir Chakar of the Rind tribe in approximately 1487, the Baluch kingdom was destroyed in the 30- year civil war between the Rind tribe and its rival, the Lasharis. The Baluch had expanded eastward as they spread into modern Pakistan’s Sind and North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) before being halted by the powerful Mughals of India. The names of Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan serve as reminders of the Baluch presence in these areas in the 16th century.3
Once they were weakened by civil war, the Baluch tribes fell under the control of the population they once defeated – the Brahui – whose leaders became the powerful Khans of Kalat. Any attempt at understanding of the Baluch tribes requires a careful review of the role played by the Brahui ethnic group. Kalat was well-positioned to divide the two large branches of the Baluch tribes, making them easier to control. To the north of the Brahui and Baluch tribes are broad areas under the control of the Pashtuns – the Kakar, Tarin, Pani, and the Shiranis that occupy Zhob, Quetta-Pishin, Loralai, and Sibi districts as well as the vicinity of Takht-i-Sulaiman.4
The presence of these martial tribes, combined with their allied tribes in Afghanistan, effectively blocked the weakened Baluch tribes from a northward expansion while the Khan of Kalat’s Brahui tribes kept them divided. And the Khans were also limited in options they might consider:
“The rulers of Kalat were never fully independent. There was always … a paramount power to whom they were subject. In the earliest times they were merely petty chiefs; later they bowed to the orders of the Mughal emperors of Delhi and to the rulers of Kandahar, and supplied men-atarms on demand. Most peremptory orders from the Afghan rulers to their vassals of Kalat are still extant, and the predominance of the Sadozais and Barakzais was acknowledged as late as 1838.”5
But the Brahui tribes, speaking Dravidian and not integrated within the Baluch tribes, were able to control the larger and warlike Baluch. More was involved than the Khan’s geographical location. British officer R. Hughes-Buller explained in a section of the 1901 Baluchistan gazetteer: “The Brahuis consist, in fact, of a number of confederated units… of heterogeneous and independent elements possessing common land and uniting from time to time for the purposes of offense or defence, but again disuniting after the necessity for unity has disappeared. “Thus the two bands which unite the confederacy are common land and common good and ill, which is another name for a common blood feud.
“At the head of the confederacy is the Khan, who, until recent times at any rate, appears to have been invested in the minds of the members of the confederacy with certain theocratic attributes, for it was formerly customary for a tribesman on visiting Kalat to make offerings at the Ahmadzai Gate before entering the town. Below the Khan, again, are the leaders of the two the two main divisions, who are the leaders of their particular tribes, and at the head of each tribe as a chief, who has below him his subordinate leaders of clans, sections, etc.
“Such a system might work well so long as there was a strong ruler in Kalat, but once his power diminished, the natural result was civil war…”6
The Brahui not only out-organized the Baluch tribes, they managed to form alliances that further strengthened them. First, they were allied with Persia’s Nadir Shah, then with Ahmad Shah Durrani during the Pashtun invasions of India, before forming an alliance with the British that left the Khans of Kalat in charge of Baluchistan until Pakistan gained its independence in 1947. But once the powerful and influential Khans were removed from their positions from which they controlled Baluchistan, R. Hughes-Buller’s prophecy became self-fulfilling as a series of civil wars and rebellions continued throughout Pakistan’s history.
Hughes-Buller also wrote that “…the welding together of the tribes now composing the Brahui confederacy into a homogeneous whole was a comparatively recent event…. Their traditions tell us that they acquired Kalat from the Baloch, and that they were assisted in doing so by the Raisanis and the Dehwars … the assistance given by the Raisanis is to be noted because the Raisanis are indisputably Afghans.”7
“Welding together tribes” and forming external alliances that allowed the Brahui Khan of Kalat and his forces to maintain significant levels of control over the larger, more populous Baluch and Pashtun tribes found in Baluchistan. Their position, alone, in Kalat allowed the Brahui to split the two large Baluch tribal divisions and this system provided much of the stability that made Baluchistan far more governable than nearby Afghanistan. In 1955, it all changed. Kalat had survived through its alliances, if not its outright subjugation to powerful external forces, such as Nadir Shah’s Persians, Ahmad Shah Durrani’s Pashtuns, and Robert Sandeman’s Imperial British Army, but the newly formed Pakistan was less reliable as an ally. As Pakistan’s ability to control its internal politics, its partially independent “states” were absorbed into Baluchistan to form one of Pakistan’s four provinces in 1955.8
Unfortunately, the “Iron Law of Unintended Consequences” resulted in increasing instability. This was predicted by Hughes- Buller in 1901 in his essay on the Brahui that appeared in the 1901 Baluchistan census: “So long as there was a strong leader in Kalat … once his power was diminished, the natural result was civil war.” More unfortunately, the increasing instability soon started to draw nearby Afghanistan into the political and military fray.
The key question that emerges is simple. If the British realized the importance of the Khans of Kalat in the tribal balance of power that was so critical to Baluchistan’s stability, why did Pakistan’s new rulers miss this? The removal of the stabilizing impact of the Khan of Kalat whose prestige and semi-theocratic influence left a power vacuum in the wake of this unfortunate decision that was soon filled by individual tribal leaders and Hughes-Buller’s “natural result” was not long in coming. Pakistan’s largest political grouping, those speaking Punjabi, were intent upon creating a modern nation-state and Baluchistan had ports and considerable natural resources that were unavailable elsewhere in new Pakistan. Independent states with ports and natural resources were not to be tolerated by the Punjabis.9
When the Brahui Khan of Kalat refused to join the newly created state of Pakistan in 1947, Kalat was swiftly occupied by Pakistan’s army in 1948 – provoking a first rebellion that was led by the Khan’s brother, Prince Karim Khan.10 Unfortunately, nearby Afghanistan was landlocked, lacked the region surrounding Gwadar port, an area ruled by Oman at the time. Equally unfortunate for future Afghanistan-Pakistan relations, Prince Karim Khan and his followers relocated into sanctuaries within Afghanistan’s nearby Kandahar Province. Relations between the ancient state of Afghanistan and the new country of Pakistan had already been poisoned by demands for the creation of Pashtunistan, a vassal state for the Afghans that would have stretched from today’s North-West Frontier Province’s northern limits southward to the Arabian Sea. These conflicting claims developing over Baluchistan resulted in Pakistanis becoming increasingly angry as Afghanistan’s Durrani monarchy began to refer to the region as “South Pashtunistan.” Prince Karim Khan’s arrival in Afghanistan did little to settle the frayed nerves among Pakistan’s new and inexperienced leadership.11
Prince Karim Khan’s short-lived revolt failed because of his inability to attract foreign support for the creation of an independent Baluchistan.
Britain worked to ensure that Pakistan remained stable while the Afghan royal government remained unable to support Karim Khan alone. Stalin’s Soviet Union remained interested, but was non-committal because they felt the greater opportunity for Soviet expansion lay with Pakistan. As a result, Karim Khan was forced to return to Kalat where he continued his rebellion until he and his small group of followers were captured and jailed – by Pakistanis. In the wake of this unsuccessful revolt, relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan became increasingly bitter and as Pakistan’s Punjabis took greater control of Baluchistan’s resources, the Baluch tribes began to build grievances – toward Pakistan. Unfortunately, seeds of a lasting type were being sown in very fertile tribal soil. Now the significantly weakened Brahui tribes were no longer able to act as a buffer between the Baluch tribes while tense relations between old Afghanistan and new Pakistan grew to the point that reconciliation was unlikely to occur. On one side, Afghanistan wanted to see the creation of “Greater Pashtunistan” that would provide both resources and access to ports for the landlocked nation while Pakistan knew the Afghan goal would result in the loss of half of their national territory, leaving its two remaining provinces, Punjab and Sind, unable to survive economically – and militarily. Pakistan had just fought its first war with India and the concept of “Greater Pashtunistan” became a lasting national survival issue for Pakistan.
This situation worsened as Pakistan’s dominant population, the Punjabis, began to complain that Baluchistan comprised 40 percent of Pakistan’s territory, but contained only four percent of its total population. Baluchistan’s tribes failed to recognize the Punjabi logic as a series of rebellions continued, culminating – to date – in a four-year outbreak of fighting in which Pakistan’s new army engaged the Baluch tribes that once fought a 30- year civil war among themselves.
Another careful observer of tribal behavior, British officer C. E. Bruce who spent 35 years in the region following his father’s 35 years, provided useful insights into the relationship between the tribes and the emerging town-based and generally “de-tribalized” inhabitants:
“…the politically minded of the official class, to which must be added the ‘middlemen,’ as well as the ‘intelligentsia,’ were jealous of the tribal leaders. ‘They looked upon them as revolutionaries and against the interests and aspirations of the educated classes.’ For, as Sir Henry Dobbs pointed out, ‘Civil officials are mostly educated Orientals brought up in towns, who have a great dislike and suspicion of the tribes, the tribal organization, and the tribal chiefs, and more often than not are out to destroy them by every means in their power.’ Written of Irak [sic], it was equally true of the frontier.”12

Bruce also wrote about the position of the tribal leaders regarding the growing animosity with the emerging town elites:
“Up to now you have always worked through us. Just because a man can read and write it does not necessarily mean that he is a better man or that he can control our tribes better than we can. Yet these are the men you are putting over our heads and deferring to. And what have been the results?”13
Here lies the clue to understanding the tension between the rural tribes and the urban classes, led by Pakistan’s Punjabis, as they looked at the land and resources under the control of tribal chiefs from the Baluch and Pashtun ethnic groups. The process controlled by the urban elites that began in 1947 is still underway that was described by C. E. Bruce:
“…more often than not are out to destroy them by every means in their power.”
By 1973, Pakistan’s government had run to the limits of their patience with the Baluch tribes. Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto imposed central rule, arrested the principal Baluch leaders, and ordered 70,000 troops into the province. A student of Baluchistan’s politica, Selig Harrison, wrote accurately about this stage of the Baluch rebellion:
“At the height of the fighting in late 1974, American-supplied Iranian combat helicopters, some of them manned by Iranian pilots, joined the Pakistani Air Force in raids on Baluch guerrilla camps. These AH-1J Huey-Cobra helicopters provided the key to victory in a crucial battle at Chamakung in early September when a force of 17,000 guerrillas of the Marri tribe, one of the 27 major Baluch subdivisions, were decimated. “… Allowing for distortion by both sides, nearly 55,000 Baluch were fighting in late 1974, some 11,500 of them in organized, hard core units. At least 3,300 Pakistani military men and 5,300 Baluch guerrillas as well as hundreds of women and children caught in the crossfire, were killed in the four year war…. “Although military conflict between the Baluch and the central government dates from the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the wanton use of superior firepower by the Pakistani and Iranian forces during the 1973-1977 conflict instilled in the Baluch feelings of unprecedented resentment and a widespread hunger for a chance to vindicate their martial honor.”14
By this time, Baluch guerrillas had been allowed to shelter in Afghanistan, once again implicating the Afghan government in the eyes of Pakistan’s leaders. But the impact was greatest on the Baluch tribes, especially the Marri tribe that suffered a military defeat and heavy losses at the hands of the Pakistani and Iranian air forces – that flew American helicopters. For the Baluch tribes, not only was their tribal territory now split and occupied by Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, instead of becoming Greater Baluchistan, their resources were now being appropriated for use in Pakistan’s larger provinces, Sind and Punjab.
One of the Baluch leaders predicted the future from his safe haven in Afghanistan:
“If we can get modern weapons,” said guerrilla leader Mir Hazar at the Kalat-i-Ghilzai base camp in southern Afghanistan, “it will never again be like the last time…. Next time we will choose the time and place, and we will take help where we can get it….”15

Low level insurgent operations continued until 2005 when an event occurred to galvanize the Baluch tribes into action. A female Baluch doctor was raped by four Pakistani soldiers guarding the Sui gas fields at Dera Bugti. Instead of the Marri tribe attacking Pakistani forces, this time it wasthe Baluch Bugti tribe doing the fighting.16 Time magazine provided details:
“In Pakistan’s Baluchistan province, nothing is held in higher regard than a woman’s honor, and the allegations of rape have the rough-and-tumble province, rich with natural gas fields, up in arms literally. Baluch tribesmen have attacked a refinery and pumping station at the Sui gas fields, have sabotaged the pipeline that sends the natural gas to the rest of Pakistan, have blown up railway lines, and have rocketed the provincial capital, Quetta. In response, President Pervez Musharraf has
sent 4,500 paramilitary troops, backed by 20 tanks and nine helicopter gunships, to Baluchistan to try to restore order. It will be a tricky mission. ‘This could be our last battle,’ Baluch tribal chieftain Attaullah Khan Mengal told Time. ‘At the end of it, either their soldiers will be standing alive, or we will.’ “…Workers at PPL reported the incident to Akbar Khan Bugti, the Nawab (or ruler) of the powerful Bugti clan. He says they told him the assailants were four soldiers in the Pakistani army. (Government troops protect the gas facilities.) Says the Nawab: ‘This gang rape took place on our land, in our midst. It has blackened our name.’ “The Nawab says he is taking the woman’s violation personally, and he can muster 4,000 armed men to back him up. Other leaders from the Mengal and Marri tribes have vowed to join him in his campaign for justice.”17
Soon, Akbar Bugti and some Marri leaders were killed in attacks by the Pakistani military. A Pakistani newspaper reported the details, but left out the reason for the revolt, the rape of the Baluch doctor:
“Nawabzada Baramdagh Bugti, grandson of Nawab Bugti, was among the dead but Agha Shahid Bugti said he couldn’t confirm the report. A private TV channel said that Mir Balaach Khan Marri was also killed in the operation. However, the report could not be confirmed. Mr. Durrani also said that Nawab Akbar Bugti had been killed along with two of his grandsons, adds Online.
“According to the sources, security forces started the operation in Bhambhoor area three days ago using heavy weapons and helicopter gunships. On Saturday, the sources said, more troops were inducted into the operation and helicopter gunships shelled the area throughout the day. “The sources said that helicopter gunships targeted the Chalgri area of Bhambhoor mountains and dropped troops who took action in the area. Armed militants of Marri and Bugti tribes resisted the troops and heavy fighting was reported for several hours.”18
And the survivors of the Pakistani raid? As usual, they went across the border into Afghanistan’s sanctuaries in what may be an implicit warning by the Afghan government to the Pakistanis to halt their alleged support for the Taliban insurgency or face a Baluch insurgency quietly supported by Afghanistan. Akbar Bugti’s grandson19 and probable heir, Brahmdakh Bugti, took the usual route into the safety across the border, but this only adds
to the tension between Afghanistan and Pakistan while both the Bugti and Marri tribes took casualties from the Pakistani army attacks. This will ensure a ready supply of antagonized militant tribesmen who will be available to rally to support the first charismatic leader to emerge against the Pakistan government that remained determined “more often than not are out to destroy them by every means in their power,” as C. E. Bruce’s words became prophetic. He knew that the “middlemen” living in towns believed that tribes must be eliminated as social organizations if new nation states are to survive and his prophecy is clearly playing out in Baluchistan.
The dictum “more often than not are out to destroy them by every means in their power” appears to have played itself out as well among the Brahui since they seem to have vanished from the tribal and political scene. The very ethnic group that assembled a powerful confederation to control the Baluch tribes is no longer a major participant and is usually reported as being assimilated into the Baluch tribes. There was no doubt in the reports filed by R. G. Sandeman in 1869:
“…with reference to the present disturbed state of Khelat, and the effect it has on the Khan’s hill subjects, the Murrees, Boogtees, &c…. The whole of Beloochistan, from Humund (a town of Dera Ghazee Khan) to the sea, was under the sway of Nurseer Khan of Khelat, a chief noted for his justice and prowess. He kept the Murrees, Boogtees, and other tribes resident along the Kafila route from Central Asia, as in good order as he did the people of the plains….”20
Another report showed the authority of the Khans of Kelat:
“…Still there is the fact … that the Shum Plain belongs chiefly to the Murrees and Boogtees (nominal subjects of the Khan of Khelat….”21
But all of the tribal balance of power shifted dramatically when the Pakistanis absorbed Kalat. The last Brahui leader, Ahmad Yar Khan, declared Kalat independent in 1947 and Pakistan’s army occupied Kalat and forced the Khan to sign the accession documents.22 Since then, the Brahui influence in Baluchistan has nearly vanished and observers of the slowly evolving insurgency in Baluchistan should remember the following:
“Such a system might work well so long as there was a strong ruler in Kalat, but once his power diminished, the natural result was civil war…”

The Baluch
(Baloch, Balooch, Beluch, Biluch)
Tribal Structure
The Baluch ethnic group is comprised of approximately 15-25 independent units, more akin to confederations than tribes. Baluch tribal hierarchies are somewhat loosely defined, being based more on alliance and location than tribal identity. Largely independent from one another, each tribe recognizes a clear internal hierarchical structure, a characteristic that differentiates the Baluch from the more egalitarian neighboring Pashtun tribes. This hierarchic structure greatly impacts Baluch tribal unity and interaction with other groups. The Baluch have traditionally been more responsive to both internal and external authority and more willing to incorporate outsiders than Pashtun tribes.
The Baluch are broadly divided into eastern and western linguistic groupings with the Brahui ethnic group falling between. The western Baluch tribes, referred to as Mekrani Baluch after the Mekran region, is the smaller of the two and includes those tribes located in Mekran Division, Kharan District of Kalat Division, Chagai District of Quetta Division in Baluchistan, and those living in southeastern Iran and southwestern Afghanistan. Most of the tribes of the eastern grouping, referred to as Sulaimani Baluch after the Sulaiman Range, are located primarily in Sibi Division, Baluchistan.
Others live in Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan, and large numbers live outside Baluchistan in Punjab and Sindh Provinces. A few also live in the North-West Frontier Province. The western or plains Baluch have historically been seen as more peaceful than the eastern or hill Baluch.
The British who dealt with the Baluch from the mid-1800s to mid-1900s saw both the western and eastern Baluch as easier to manage than the Pashtun tribes to the north and northeast. Stereotypes of the independent, egalitarian Pashtun with a strong sense of Pashtun identity contrast with those of the less independent, more hierarchical Baluch who mix more freely with other tribes. The stereotypes still exist, even among the Baluch and
Pashtuns themselves. Pashtun tribes usually claim descent from a common ancestor and recognize a familial-like bond within their division, clan, and tribe. They also recognize a very strict common set of characteristics that make one a Pashtun, including speaking Pashtu and following the Pashtun code or Pashtunwali. The Baluch on the other hand define their tribe according to more political and geographic criteria: loyalty to an authority and common location. Anyone choosing to live under the authority of the tribal chief can be considered a part of the tribe. An outsider wishing to join a Baluch tribe or section first moves into a Baluch tribe’s area, shares in the tribe’s good and ill fortune, is eventually able to obtain tribal land, and is fully admitted upon marrying a woman from the tribe.
The tendency of Baluch tribes to take on outside groups or members, and likewise for groups or members to leave one tribe for another, makes establishing a basis for a tribal hierarchy difficult. One often encounters the same sub-element split between two or more tribes. To further complicate matters, elements sometimes change their names or take on the name of their host, even in the case where they are not ethnically Baluch. In many parts of Baluchistan, it is popular to be considered a Baluch, so non-Baluch will sometimes take on Baluch tribal names, and after many years, may become considered as such. For example, Gichkis, Khetrans, and Nausherwanis are considered to be of non-Baluch origin (Khetrans do not even speak Baluchi), and yet multiple sources list them as Baluch in tribal hierarchies.


The structure within each Baluch tribe follows a more or less common pattern:23


I. Tuman/Toman (Tribe):
The Baluch are divided into tumans led by a tumandar/ tomandar (chief).24 The term tuman also refers to a Baluch village.

A. Para/Phara (Clan): Tumans are divided into paras led by a mukadum/ mukadam (headman or chief).

1. Pali/Phalli (Sept or Division): Paras are divided into palis led by a headman, sometimes called a wadera.

a. Family: Palis are sometimes further divided into family groups led by the head of the family, sometimes called a motabar.
A grouping called a sub-tuman occurs in some cases between tuman and para and is a large clan or sub-tribe, having its own significant sections akin to clans. Examples of these are the Haddiani clan of the Leghari tribe, the Durkani and Lashari clans of the Gurchani tribe, the Ghulmani clan of the Buzdar tribe, the Shambani clan of the Bugti tribe, and the Mazarani clan of the Marri tribe.
According to legend, when the Baluch first arrived in Baluchistan, they were united under one headman, one Jalal Khan, but soon split either along ancestral lines or based on which headman they chose to follow as they spread north and east across Baluchistan. Some sources indicate the Baluch are essentially made up of three or five main tribal groupings, though these vary according to the source. Some list the Narui, Rind, and Magzi, some the Rind, Magzi, and Lashari, and some the Rind, Hot, Lashari, Kaheri, and Jatoi.25 In addition to these, there were several other unaffiliated Baluch tribes. These divisions seem to serve little purpose today. Though a Baluch tribe may hearken back to their Rind or Lashari origins, they are independent of these tribes.

Analysis of multiple sources indicates the following are the primary Baluch tribes in Pakistan:26

PAKISTANI BALUCH

Bugti:
Durrag/Nothani/Khalpar/Masori/Mondrani/Notheri/Perozani/Raheja/Shambani.
Bugti (aka Bughti): An eastern Baluch tribe located almost exclusively in Dera Bugti District of Sibi Division, Baluchistan. A few also live in Sibi District of Sibi Division and Barkhan District of Zhob Division. The Bugtis, along with the Marris, Dombkis, and Jakranis, are known as the “hill tribes” and have historically been more independent and warlike than the rest of the Baluch. In the past they raided their neighbors, including those in Sindh and Punjab Provinces, and were the most troublesome Baluch tribes for the British. Today the Marri and Bugti tribes lead the Baluch nationalist movement, along with the Mengal Brahuis. As of 1951, there were approximately 31,000 Bugtis..

Buledi:
Gholo/Hajija/Jafuzai/Kahorkani/Kotachi/Lauli/Pitafi/Raite.
Buledi (aka Boledi, Bolidi, Buledhi, Bulethi, Burdi): Originally located near the coasts of Iran and Pakistan, the Buledi moved north and east into Kalat Division, Baluchistan and northern Sindh, near the Indus River, having been pushed out of Mekran by the Gichki tribe. Some likely remained in Sistan va Baluchestan Province, Iran and Mekran Division, Baluchistan. Most sources list the Buledi as belonging to the eastern Baluch, but some list them as western. One source lists them as a Rind clan. As of 1951, there were approximately 12,500 Buledis.

Buzdar:
Gulman/Namurdi.
Buzdar (aka Bozdar): Located in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. The Buzdars are of Rind descent, but have become an independent tribe.

Chandia:
Chandia (aka Chandya): Located primarily between the Indus River in Sindh and the Baluchistan border where they have reportedly assimilated with the local inhabitants. They also reside in Dera Ismail Khan District of the North-West Frontier Province and Muzaffargarh District, Punjab. They may have originally been a Leghari Baluch clan.

Dombki:
Baghdar/Bhand/Brahmani/Dinari/DirKhani/Fattwani/Gabol/Galatta/Galoi/Ghaziari/Gishkaun/ Gurgel/Hara/Jekrani/Jumnani/Khosa/Lashari/Mirozai/Muhammandani/Shabkor/Singiani/Sohriani/Talani/Wazirani.
Dombki (aka Domki, Dumki): An eastern Baluch tribe located primarily in the vicinity of Lahri in Bolan District of Nasirabad Division,Baluchistan, but also found in Sindh. The Dombkis are hill tribes, and like the Marri and Bugti, carried out raids against their neighbors up to the late 1800s. The Dombki, Marri, Bugti, and Jakrani tribes often feuded with and raided one another, but sometimes allied against other tribes or the British. Dombkis are reputedly the storytellers of the Baluch and the recorders of Baluch genealogy. As of 1951, there were approximately 14,000 Dombkis.

Drishak:
Drishak: Located primarily in the vicinity of Asni in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. The plains tribes between the eastern border of Baluchistan and the Indus River in Punjab and Sindh, including the Drishaks, Gurchanis, Lunds, and Mazaris, suffered most from the raids conducted by the hill tribes, the Bugtis, Dombkis, Jakranis, and Marris. The plains tribes generally cooperated with the British who controlled Punjab and Sindh
from the mid-1800s to mid-1900s.

Gichki:
Dinarzai/Isazai.
Gichki (aka Ghichki): A western Baluch tribe located primarily in Panjgur District of Mekran Division, Baluchistan. The Gichkis are not ethnically Baluch, likely originating in Sindh or India as Sikhs or Rajputs, but now speak Baluchi and have become assimilated into the Baluch. The Gichki likely also absorbed a number of smaller Baluch tribes in the Mekran region. The Gichki reportedly entered Mekran around the end of the 17th century and, though a small tribe, by inter-marrying and using other tribal militias, soon became a powerful tribe in the area. In the late 1700s, the Brahui Khan of Kalat seized control of the Mekran region, but allowed the Gichki chiefs to manage it as a state within the Khanate. In the late 1800s,
the Nausherwanis, who had entered western Baluchistan from Iran and settled in Kharan District of Kalat Division, expanded into Mekran, reducing Gichki power until the British checked their advances. As of 1951, there were approximately 3,500 Gichkis.


Gurchani:

Chang/Durkani/Holawani/Hotwani/Jikskani/Jogiani/Khalilani/Lashari/Pitafi
/Shaihakani/Suhrani.
Gurchani (aka Garshani, Gorchani, Gurcshani): Located in the vicinity of Lalgarh, near Harrand in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. They are reportedly originally descended from the Dodai, a once important tribe that no longer exists. The Gurchani tribe has over time absorbed elements of the Buledi, Lashari, and Rind Baluch. The plains tribes between the eastern border of Baluchistan and the Indus River in Punjab and Sindh, including
the Drishaks, Gurchanis, Lunds, and Mazaris, suffered most from the raids conducted by the hill tribes, the Bugtis, Dombkis, Jakranis, and Marris.
The plains tribes generally cooperated with the British who controlled Punjab and Sindh from the mid-1800s to mid-1900s.

Hot:
Singalu.
Hot (aka Hut): Located primarily in central Mekran Division, Baluchistan, but also found in the vicinity of Bampur in Sistan va Baluchestan, Iran. They are a significant tribe in both areas. According to legend, they are one of the five original Baluch tribes, descended from Jalal Khan, the others being the Jatoi, Kaheri, Lashari, and Rind tribes, though others say they are the aboriginal inhabitants of the Mekran region and are not ethnic Baluch.

Jamali: Babar/Bhandani/Dhoshli/Manjhi/Mundrani/Pawar/Rehanwala/Sahriani/Shahaliani/ Shahalzal/Taharani/Tingiani/Waswani/Zanwrani.
Jamali: An eastern Baluch tribe located primarily in northern Sindh, but also found in Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan, on the border between Baluchistan and Sindh. As of the late 1800s, they were reported to be a small, poor tribe of farmers and herders, numbering about 2,500. As of 1951, there were approximately 15,000 Jamalis.

Jatoi:
Jatoi (aka Jatui): A wide-ranging Baluch tribe located in the following areas: Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan; Dera Ghazi Khan, Lahore and Muzaffargarh Districts, Punjab; Dera Ismail Khan, North-West Frontier Province; and northern Sindh. According to one source, they are no longer a coherent tribe but are spread among other Baluch tribes. According to legend, they are one of the five original Baluch tribes, descended from Jalal Khan, the others being the Hot, Kaheri, Lashari, and Rind tribes.

Kaheri:
Bulani/Moradani/Qalandrani/Tahirani.
Kaheri (aka Kahiri): A small, eastern Baluch tribe located in Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan. According to legend, they are one of the five original Baluch tribes, descended from Jalal Khan, the others being the Hot, Jatoi, Lashari, and Rind tribes.

Kasrani:
Kasrani (aka Kaisrani, Qaisarani, Qaisrani): Located in the Sulaiman Range along the northwestern border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. The most northerly of their clans resides on the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab and Dera Ismail Khan District, North-West Frontier Province. They are reported to be originally descended from the Rind tribe.

Khetran: The Khetran tribe is not Baluch and so is not included in the Baluch tree, but they are closely associated with the Baluch and warrant some mention. Like the Gichki, they are thought to be of Indian origin, but unlike the Gichki who have taken on the Baluchi language, the Khetran speak an Indian dialect akin to Sindhi and Jatki. Some sources class the Khetran among the Baluch hill tribes, as they formerly shared the same propensity for raiding as the Bugtis, Dombkis, Jakranis, and Marris. The Khetrans allied with the Bugtis against the Marris when conflicts arose, though conflicts and alliances among hill tribes were short-lived. As of 1951, there were approximately 19,500 Khetrans.

Khosa:

Balelani/Khilolani/Umrani.
Khosa (aka Kosah): An eastern Baluch tribe located in Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan, Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, and in the vicinity of Jacobabad in northern Sindh. Some sources list them as a Rind clan, though one source claims they are of Hot descent. As of 1951, there were approximately 11,300 Khosas.

Lashari:
Alkai/Bhangrani/Chuk/Dinari/Goharamani/Gulllanzai/Mianzai/Sumrani/ Muhammadani/SPachi/Tajani/Tawakalani/Tumpani/Wasuwani.
Lashari (aka Chahi, Lashar, Lishari): An eastern Baluch tribe located primarily in Baluchistan, but also found in small numbers in the vicinity of Bampur in Sistan va Baluchestan, Iran. According to legend, they are one of the five original Baluch tribes, descended from Jalal Khan, the others being the Hot, Jatoi, Kaheri, and Rind tribes. The Rinds and Lasharis, originally enemies, allied and conquered the indigenous populations of modern Kalat, Nasirabad, and Sibi Divisions in the 16th century. As of 1951, there were approximately 11,000 Lasharis.

Leghari:
Chandya/Haddiani/Haibatani/Kaloi/Talbur.
Leghari (aka Lagaori, Lagari, Laghari): Located primarily in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, but also found in Barkhan District of Zhob Division, Baluchistan and possibly in northern Sindh. According to one source, the Leghari are a Rind Baluch clan.

Lund:
Ahmdani/Khosa/Lund/Rind.
Lund (aka Lundi): Located primarily in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. The Lund is a large tribe divided into two sub-tribes, one located at Sori and the other in Tibbi. The Sori Lunds are more numerous than the Tibbi Lunds. The plains tribes between the eastern border of Baluchistan and the Indus River in Punjab and Sindh, including the Drishaks, Gurchanis, Lunds, and Mazaris, suffered most from the raids conducted by the hill tribes, the Bugtis, Dombkis, Jakranis, and Marris. The plains tribes generally cooperated with the British who controlled Punjab and Sindh from the mid-1800s to mid-1900s.

Magzi: Ahmadani/Bhutani/Chandraman/Hasrani/Hisbani/Jaghirani/Jattak/Katyar/Khatohal/ Khosa/Lashari/Marri/Mughemani/Mugheri/Nindani/Nisbani/Rahajs/Rawatani/Sakhani/
Shambhani/Sobhani/Umrani.
Magzi (aka Magasi, Magassi, Maghzi, Magsi): An eastern Baluch tribe located primarily in Jhal Magsi District of Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan. The Magzi were historically farmers but occasionally committed raids against neighbors. They, along with the Rinds, accepted the authority of the Khan of Kalat in the late 1700s. The Magzis and Rinds, who border one another occasionally, feuded in the past. The Magzis, though fewer in number, defeated the Rinds in 1830. As of 1951, there were approximately 17,300 Magzis.

Marri:
Bijarani/Damani/Ghazni/Loharani/Mazarani/Miani.
Marri (aka Mari): An eastern Baluch tribe located almost exclusively in Kohlu District of Sibi Division, Baluchistan; some also reside in northern Kalat and Nasirabad Divisions in the Bolan Pass area. The Marris, along with the Bugtis, Dombkis, and Jakranis are known as the “hill tribes” and have historically been more independent and warlike than the rest of the Baluch. In the past they raided their neighbors, including those in Sindh and Punjab Provinces, and were the most troublesome Baluch tribes according to the British. Today the Marri and Bugti tribes lead the Baluch nationalist movement, along with the Mengal Brahuis. As of 1951, there were approximately 38,700 Marris.

Mazari:
Balachani/Kurd.
Mazari: An eastern Baluch tribe located primarily in the vicinity of Rojhan in southern Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, and between the Indus River and the border of Sibi Division, Baluchistan in northern Sindh. The plains tribes between the eastern border of Baluchistan and the Indus River in Punjab and Sindh, including the Drishaks, Gurchanis, Lunds, and Mazaris, suffered most from the raids conducted by the hill tribes, Bugtis, Dombkis, Jakranis, and Marris. The plains tribes generally cooperated with the British who controlled Punjab and Sindh from the mid-1800s to mid- 1900s. Prior to British rule, the Mazaris were known as “pirates of the Indus” because of attacks they conducted and fees they extorted from traders on the river. Most recently, following the rape of a female doctor at the Sui gas facility in 2005, the Bugti, Marri, Mazari, and Mengal Brahuis joined forces and attacked the facility, resulting in gas shortages throughout Pakistan.

Nausherwani (aka Naosherwani, Nawshirvani): The Nausherwani tribe is not Baluch and so is not included in the Baluch tree, but they are closely associated with the Baluch and warrant some mention. Their origins are obscure, but they have now fully merged with the Baluch. They primarily inhabit Kharan District of Kalat Division, Baluchistan and Sistan va Baluchestan, Iran. The Nausherwanis, who nominally fell under the authority of the Khan of Kalat, were the most powerful tribe in the Kharan area as of the early 1900s. Around that time the British checked their efforts to expand south into the Mekran region.

Rakhshani:
Rakhshani (aka Bakhshani, Rakshani, Rekhshani): A western Baluch tribe located in Kharan District of Kalat Division and Chagai District of Quetta Division, Baluchistan and along the Helmand River in southern Afghanistan. There are also Rakhshanis in eastern Baluchistan, Sindh, and Iran. Some list the Rakhshani as a Rind Baluch clan and others as a Brahui tribe.27 The Rakhshanis of Kharan were loyal to the Khan of Kalat and well-disposed toward the British as of the early 1900s. As of 1951, there were approximately 35,000 Rakhshanis.

Rind:
Buzdar/Chandia/Gabol/Godri/Gulam/Bolak/Hot/Jamali/Jatoi/Khosa/Kuchik/Kuloi/Lashari/
Leghani/Nakhezal/Nuhani/Raheja/Rakhsani.
Rind: The Rind is a western Baluch tribe. Their headquarters is reportedly in Shoran in Jhal Magsi District of Nasirabad Division, but they are also located in Quetta and Mekran Divisions in Baluchistan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, and Multan Districts in Punjab, and Dera Ismail Khan District in North-West Frontier Province. Many other Baluch tribes claim to be Rinds or descended from Rinds. Many of those listed as Rinds are now completely independent and have long-since moved away from the Rind core. This could account for sources reporting such a wide geographic distribution of the tribe. According to legend, the Rind tribe is one of the five original Baluch tribes, descended from Jalal Khan, the others being the Hot, Jatoi, Kaheri, and Lashari tribes. The Rinds and Lasharis, originally enemies, allied and conquered the indigenous populations of modern Kalat, Nasirabad, and Sibi Divisions in the 16th century. They, along with the Magzis, accepted the authority of the Khan of Kalat in the late 1700s. The Magzis and Rinds, who border one another, occasionally feuded in the past. The Magzis, though fewer in number, defeated the Rinds in 1830. As of 1951, there were approximately 26,400 Rinds.

Umrani:
Balachani/Burian/Dilawarzai/Ghanhani/Jonghani/Malghani/Misriani/Nodkani/Paliani/
Sethani/Sobhani/Tangiani.
Umrani: A small eastern Baluch tribe located primarily in Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan. Some may also live between the Indus River and eastern border of Baluchistan in Sindh. As of 1951, there were approximately 2,400 Umranis.

The Baluch in Afghanistan for the most part have different names and groupings from those in Baluchistan and are not usually included in the Baluch tribal lists provided by British sources from the 1800s and 1900s. The only Baluch tribe tha seems to inhabit territory on both sides of the border is the Rakhshani. The Baluch in Afghanistan are mostly nomads living primarily in Nimruz Province, along the banks of the Helmand River and on the western border of Afghanistan between Kala-i-Fath and Chakhansur (Zaranj). Some sources place them all along the southern border of Afghanistan in Nimruz, Helmand, and Kandahar Provinces, with small pockets farther north in Farah, Badghis, and Jowzjan Provinces. The following are the most commonly mentioned Baluch tribes in Afghanistan:28

AFGHAN BALUCH

Gorgeg:

Gorgeg (aka Gargeg, Ghurchij, Gorgaiz, Gorget, Gurgech, Gurgeech, Gurgich): Located in southern Afghanistan along the Helmand River. According to one source, the Gurgech (Gorgeg) are a section of the Rakhshani Baluch.

Kashani:
Kashani: Located in southern Afghanistan along the Helmand River.

Manasani:

Mamasani (aka Muhammad Hasani, Muhumsani): Located in southern Afghanistan along the Helmand River and in Farah Province. There are also some Mamasani located in Mekran Division, Baluchistan, Pakistan, but their relationship to one another is unclear.

Nahrui:
Nahrui: Located in southern Afghanistan.

Rakshani: Gurgech/Jianzai/Sarai/Usbakzai.
Rakhshani (aka Bakhshani, Rakshani, Rekhshani): Located in southern Afghanistan. They are divided into the following sections: Badini, Jamaldini, Gurgeh, Jianzai, Usbakzai, Saruni, Betakzai, Sarai, and Kalagani.

Reki:
Reki (aka Rek, Rigi, Riki): According to legend, the Reki remained behind in Persia (Iran) when the majority of the Baluch tribes moved into Baluchistan. Many still remain in Iran, but according to one source, some live in central Baluchistan, Pakistan, and southern Afghanistan.

Sanjarani:

Sanjarani (aka Sinjarani): Located in southern Afghanistan in Nimruz and Helmand Provinces, along the Helmand Valley. The Sanjarani Baluch claim to have originally come from Baluchistan about 1800. Some are also located in Iran.

The following are Baluch tribes in Sistan va Baluchestan Province, Iran:29

IRANIAN BALUCH

Baranzai:
Baranzai: Located in Sistan va Baluchestan. They may be of Pashtun origin.

Damani:
Yarmuhammadzai.

Damani: Located in Sistan va Baluchestan. The Damani are divided into the Gamshadzai and Yarmuhammadzai sections. Some may also be located in Baluchistan, Pakistan.

Garmshadzai:
Arzezai/Jehangirzai/Kerramzai/Muhammadzai.

Hot:
Hot:
Located in along the coast in Sistan va Baluchestan, Iran and also in Mekran Division, Baluchistan, Pakistan. As of 1923, they were reported to be the largest Baluch tribe living in Iran. Many of them were nomadic.

Ismailzai:

Ismailzai: Located in Sistan va Baluchestan. Most are nomadic. The Reki tribe borders them to the east. They are noted to be stricter in their religious observances than their neighbors.

Kurd:
Kurd (aka Kurt): The Kurds are thought to be identifiable with the Kurds currently located in northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey. They were reportedly induced (presumably by the Shah of Persia) to settle in Sarhad, Sistan va Baluchestan in order to keep the Baluch in check. However, they got along relatively well with the Baluch and conducted raids against Persian as well as Baluch territory. While acknowledging their Kurdish origins, they now refer to themselves as Baluch.

Lashari:
Lashari: The Lasharis are a well-known Baluch tribe in Baluchistan, Pakistan, but some are nomadic and live in Iran around Bampur in Sistan va Baluchestan, Iran. The relationship between the Lasharis in Iran and Pakistan is unknown.

Nausherwani:

Nausherwani: Though not originally a Baluch tribe, some sources list the Nausherwanis as such or as a Rind Baluch clan. The Nausherwanis listed as Baluch lived in Sistan va Baluchestan as of 2003. They enjoyed close ties to the Nausherwanis in Baluchistan, Pakistan.

Rais:

Rais: Located primarily along the Iranian coast in Sistan va Baluchestan. Some also live in Mekran Division along the Pakistan coast in Baluchistan.

Reki: Natuzai.
Reki (aka Rek, Rigi, Riki): As of the late 1800s, the Reki were said to be numerous and scattered over southern Iran and between Kuh-i-Taftan Mountain and the Helmand River. They were primarily herders. Reki are also located in Afghanistan, but their relationship with the Iranian Reki is unknown.

Taukhi: Gurgich/Jamaizai/Saruni.
Taukhi: Located in Sistan va Baluchestan. Many of the Baluch tribes in Iran hearken back to Taukhi origins. It is unclear if Taukhi is a separate tribe or a hereditary group encompassing several tribes.

Geography

According to tradition and historical evidence, the Baluch entered their present territory from the west—some legends claim from as far west as Syria—arriving in Mekran in approximately the 7th century. From there they spread north into Kalat Division and east into Sindh and Punjab Provinces. They currently inhabit parts of Baluchistan, Sindh, and Punjab Provinces, Pakistan, parts of southeastern Iran, and parts of southern and northwestern Afghanistan. Some also live in the Middle East, and some may live in Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Pashtun tribes border them on the north and northeast, Punjabis and Sindhis on the east, and Persians on the west. The Brahui ethnic group, residing in Kalat Division, interrupts the Baluch tribal extent within Baluchistan. Most Baluch practice limited nomadism, though some are settled agriculturalists. The Baluch inhabit an area that varies geographically from mountains, to plains, to deserts, and climatically from semi-arid to hyper-arid. As of 1981, approximately half of the Baluch resided in Baluchistan Province. A high percentage resided in Punjab and Sindh Provinces and Sistan va Baluchestan Province, Iran, and fewer lived in Nimruz, Helmand, Badghis, and Jowzjan Provinces, Afghanistan and the North- West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Some have migrated to the Middle East, primarily to Oman, and Baluch speakers can be found in Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. As of the early 1900s, one quarterof the population of Sindh Province was estimated to be Baluch. As of the late 1800s, the Baluch held most of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab Province. However, as of the early 1900s, the Baluch living to the east of the Indus River in Sindh and Punjab no longer spoke the Baluchi language and had more or less assimilated with their neighbors.
Traditionally, many Baluch were nomadic herders who practiced limited agriculture. Though
cultivation has increased with improved irrigation, many Baluch, especially in the Chagai area of Quetta Division, are still nomads. As of the early 1900s, most Baluch in Zhob Division were nomads, though they were beginning to acquire land. Even settled Baluch tend to view themselves as a nomadic people, the term “Baluch” often being used to refer to nomads in general. During times of droughts, normally settled Baluch might migrate to a more prosperous tribal area, where they would receive assistance from fellow tribesmen. Nomadic Baluch live in blanket tents called ghedans/gedans/gidans, made of goat hair and
generally consisting of 11 pieces, about three feet wide by 15-24 feet long. The pieces are stitched together and stretched over curved wooden poles.
Wealthy families use a separate ghedan to shelter their livestock, but most families live with their animals in the same ghedan. A group of ghedans constituted a tuman. Some hill nomads live in small groups in three to four-foot high loose stone enclosures covered by a temporary roof of matting or leaves. The Kachhi Plain in Nasirabad Division is a common winter residence for nomadic Baluch, Brahui, and other tribes.

The Baluch have at one time occupied, and likely continue to occupy, the following areas:

Afghanistan
Badghis Province:
As of the late 1800s, there were approximately 650 families of Baluch who claimed to have moved there from Baluchistan Province..

Farah Province:
The Mamasani Baluch resided in Farah Province as of the early 1900s.

Helmand Province:
Most Baluch live along the Helmand River. – Deshu.

Jowzjan Province:
A very small number of Baluch lived in Jowzjan Province as of the late 1800s. – Shebergan.

Kandahar Province

Nimruz Province:
Most Baluch live along the Helmand River or around Chakhansur (Zaranj) near the Iranian border.
– Chahar Burja
– Chakhansur (Zaranj)
– Rudbar.

Iran
Sistan va Baluchestan

Oman
Pakistan
• Baluchistan
– Kalat Division:

As of 1951, 79,398 Baluch resided in Kalat Division, in Kalat, Kharan, and Lasbela Districts. A few Baluch also live in Khuzdar and Mastung Districts.

– Mekran Division:
As of 1951, 71,840 Baluch resided in Mekran Division.

– Nasirabad Division:
The Baluch reside in Jhal Magzi District and in southern Bolan District. Some may also live in or migrate to Nasirabad District. They occupy the following villages, among others: Gandava, Bhag, Dadhar, Lahri, Shoran, and Jhal. Some hill Baluch from the east may still winter in the Kachhi Plain in Nasirabad Division.

– Quetta Division:
The Baluch are scattered over the southern portion of Quetta District, Quetta Division. They also reside in Pishin, Killa Abdullah, and Chagai Districts. Many of the Baluch living in Chagai are nomads. As of 1951, 13,233 Baluch resided in Quetta Division.

– Sibi Division:

As of 1951, 110,953 Baluch resided in Sibi Division, most in Kohlu and Dera Bugti Districts.

– Zhob Division:
The Baluch reside in Barkhan and Musa Khel Districts and in the Duki and Sinjawi Sub Divisions of Loralai District.
As of 1951, 25,107 Baluch resided in Zhob Division, most in Loralai District.

• North-West Frontier Province:
Most Baluch in the North-West Frontier Province reside in the vicinity of Dera Ismail Khan.

• Punjab:
The Baluch primarily occupy the area of Dera Ghazi Khan, between Baluchistan (Zhob and Sibi Divisions) and the Indus River. A few Baluch also reside in Multan, Muzaffargarh, and Lahore.

• Sindh:
The Baluch primarily occupy the area between Baluchistan (Sibi and Nasirabad Divisions) and the Indus River.

Tajikistan

Turkmenistan

United Arab Emirates

The following are the significant features and towns found in Baluch areas:
Rivers:

Helmand River,
Nimruz and Helmand Provinces, Afghanistan.

Hingol River,
Lasbela District, Kalat Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan.

Indus River:
The Baluch live mostly to the west of the Indus River in Punjab and Sindh Provinces, Pakistan.

Sori River:
There are multiple streams and rivers in Sibi Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan named Sori, but the primary is located in Dera Bugti District and flows southeast toward the Indus River.

Valleys:

Kalat Valley,
Kalat Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. Baluch, along with Brahuis, Dehwars, and Babi Pashtuns reside in the Kalat Valley.

Mountains:
• Bugti Hills,

Dera Bugti District, Sibi Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. The Bugti tribe resides in the Bugti Hills.

Central Mekran Range,
Kech District, Mekran Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan.

Chagai Hills,
Chagai District, Quetta Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. Many Baluch living in Chagai are nomads.

Giandari Range:
The Giandari Range is located on the border of Baluchistan (Dera Bugti District, Sibi Division) and Punjab Provinces, Pakistan. It is part of the end of the Sulaiman Range. The Bugti tribe inhabits the area.

Kirthar Range,
Sindh Province, Pakistan. The Kirthar Range is located to the east of Khuzdar District of Kalat Division, Baluchistan.

Marri Hills,
Kohlu District, Sibi Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. The Marri tribe resides in the Marri Hills.

Mekran Coast Range,
Gwadar District, Mekran Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan.

Ras Koh Hills,
Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. The Ras Koh Hills are located on the border between Kharan District of Kalat Division and Chagai District of Quetta Division. The Baluch living in the Ras Koh Hills are principally nomads.

Sulaiman Range,
Pakistan: The Sulaiman Range runs north and south through Pakistan, roughly parallel to the Indus River, ending in Baluchistan in the Giandari Range and the Marri and Bugti Hills.

Passes:

• Bolan Pass,

Bolan District, Kalat Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: The Bolan Pass has strategic significance as the major communication route between Afghanistan and Punjab and Sindh Provinces, and the coast of Pakistan. It is located at approximately latitude 29 30’ N. and longitude 67 40’ E., about five miles northwest of the town of Dadhar. The pass itself is a succession of narrow valleys between high ranges. The Bolan River runs through it. Some Marri tribesmen live in the area of the Bolan Pass.

Plains:

Kachhi Plain,
Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: Some Baluch inhabit the Kachhi Plain, and some tribes, including the Marri and Bugti Baluch, migrate there in the winter.

Ports:
Gwadar Port,
Gwadar District, Mekran Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: Gwadar Port is located on the Arabian Sea at the entrance to the Persian Gulf. The port is extremely significant strategically and economically, and control of it has caused contention both historically and in the present day. Construction to make Gwadar a functioning deep sea, warm water port began in 2002, and it became fully functional on 21 December 2008. Baluch nationalist groups have opposed the port’s construction, due to concerns the Baluch people will not benefit from its opening. They contend the government of Pakistan will employ the thousands of people required to operate the port from outside Baluchistan, primarily from the Punjab, which will disenfranchise the Baluch residents and also drastically alter the demographics of the area. Many Baluch fishermen have already suffered due to not being able to access their of Oman, who had been forced to flee Oman. Sultan-bin-Ahmed eventually returned to Oman and became Sultan but retained claims on Gwadar, which resulted in a dispute over whether Gwadar had been loaned or permanently gifted to him. Oman eventually sold it back to Pakistan in 1958.

Ormara,
Gwadar District, Mekran Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: Location of Pakistan naval base.

Pasni,
Gwadar District, Mekran Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: Location of Pakistan naval base.

Significant Towns:
Dadhar,
Bolan District, Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: Dadhar is located at the southern entrance of the Bolan Pass.

Dera Bugti,
Dera Bugti District, Sibi Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: Dera Bugti is a relatively small town, but serves as the headquarters of the Bugti tribe.

Gandava,
Jhal Magzi District, Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan

• Jhal,
Jhal Magzi District, Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan.

Kahan,
Kohlu District, Sibi Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: Kahan is a relatively small town, but serves as the headquarters of the Marri tribe.

Kalat,
Kalat District, Kalat Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: Brahuis are the primary residents of Kalat, but some Baluch reside there as well. Kalat is the headquarters of the Brahui Khan of Kalat.

Quetta,
Quetta District, Quetta Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: A mixed population of Baluch, Brahui, and Pashtun tribes reside in Quetta, along with many muhajirs (immigrants who came from India during Partition). Quetta is the headquarters of the Taliban’s senior leadership..

Shoran,
Bolan District, Nasirabad Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan.

Sibi,
Sibi District, Sibi Division, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan.

Military Installations:
Baluchistan nationalist groups are opposed to Pakistan army presence in Baluchistan and contend the Baluch are proportionately under-represented in the Pakistan military in general.

• As of 2006, there were military cantonments in the towns of Quetta, Sibi, Loralai, and Khuzdar.
• As of 2006, three out of Pakistani’s four naval bases were located in Baluchistan at Gwadar, Ormara, and Pasni.

Refugee Camps:
Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, over three million refugees fled to Pakistan (another 2.9 million entered Iran).

THE BRAHUI (Brahvi)

Ethnology
The Brahuis are the dominant and most numerous race in Baluchistan. British ethnology documents do not fully determine the Brahui origin except to say, they are possibly of the Tartars, while more recent census reports (1998) lend to the possibilities of Turko-Iranian extraction (the same with the Afghan and Baluch).
The name Brahui means “highlander,” as opposed to Narui (Baluch) “lowlander.” They are divided into a number of tribes or khels (kheil) and are a wandering, unsettled nation. The Brahui always reside in one part of the country in summer and in another during the winter; they likewise change their immediate places of residence many times every year in quest of pasturage for their flocks – a practice which is rare among the Baluch
tribes.
The Brahuis are equally faithful in an adherence to their promises, and equally hospitable with the Baluch, and on the whole [as noted by British], are preferred as to their general character.
The 1930 Military report on Baluchistan notes that the “Brahui tribe [is] based on common good and ill; cemented by obligations arising from blood feud. Unsurpassed in strength and hardiness; excellent mountaineers and good marksmen; “mean, parsimonious, avaricious, exceedingly idle…”

Language
The bulk of the present Baluch and Brahui populations are bilingual, and sometimes trilingual. Baluchi and Brahui may be their mother tongues but they are equally fluent in Sindhi and Saraiki.

Religion
Brahuis are all Sunni Muslims and their external forms, such as marriage and interment, are practiced according to the tenets of that sect. They are, however, very lax as to religious observances and ceremonies, and very few of their tomans are furnished with a place of worship.

Location
Occupy the great mountainous band extending from the south of Quetta to Lasbela. In the northeast of Kharan, Brahuis are numerous. Brahui tribes usually migrate to the plains of Bolan District for winter from Kalat, Mastung, and Quetta districts and return to their homes after winter.


TRIBES OF THE BRAHUI

Note: Locational and other relevant information pertaining to Brahui tribes and sub-tribes is available but has not yet been consolidated into product format.

ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF TRIBES

ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF TRIBES
Tribal Element /Ethnic Group/ Tribe/ Division Sub-Division/Section/ Fraction

Ababaki /Brahui/ Mengal (Mingal)/ Shadmanzai/ Pahlwanzai/Ababaki
Adamani /Brahui/ Zahri(Zehri)/Jattak/Adamani
Adamzai/Brahui/Sarparra(Sirperra,/ Sarpara)
Adamzai
Adenazai /Brahui/ Zahri (Zehri)/ Bajoi /Adenazai
Afghanzai /Brahui/ Rekizai /Afghanzai
Ahmadkhanzai/Brahui/Muhammad Shahi/ Samezai (Samakzai)/ Ahmadkhanzai
Ahmadzae (Ahmadzai) /Brahui/Kambarani (Kambrani)
Ahmadzae /(Ahmadzai)
Ahmadzai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Ahmadzai
Ahmadzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Ahmadzai
Ahmadzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Ahmadzai
Ahmedari Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Ahmedari
Aidozai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Aidozai
Aidozai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Aidozai
Ajibani Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Ajibani
Ajibari Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Ajibari
Akhtarzai Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Akhtarzai
Akhundani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Akhundani
Alamkhanzai Brahui Langav Ali Alamkhanzai
Ali Brahui Langav Ali
Alimuradzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Alimuradzai

Tribal Element Ethnic Group Tribe Division Sub-Division Section Fraction
Alizai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/
Deggaun)

Alizai Alizai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Alizai
Allahdadzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Allahdadzai
Allahyarzai Brahui Langav Ali Allahyarzai
Amaduni Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in
Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi Amaduni
Amirzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai Amirzai
Anazai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi Anazai
Angalzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Angalzai
Azghalzai Brahui Gurgnari Azghalzai
Baddajari Brahui Kalandrani Baddajari
Badduzai Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Badduzai
Badinzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai
Baduzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Baduzai
Baduzi Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Baduzi
Bahadur
Khanzai
Brahui Nichari Bahadur Khanzai
Bahadurzai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Jhikko Bahadurzai
Bahdinzai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Bahdinzai

Tribal Element Ethnic Group Tribe Division Sub-Division Section Fraction
Bahl (upper)
Nakib
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan)
Bahl (upper) Nakib
Bahurzai (Bohirzai) Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Bahurzai (Bohirzai)
Bajai (Barjai) Brahui Bajai (Barjai)
Bajezai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai Bajezai
Bajoi Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi
Balochzai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Balochzai
Balokhanzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Balokhanzai
Bambakzae Brahui Bambakzae
Bambkazai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Bambkazai
Bangulzai Brahui Bangulzai
Bangulzai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Bangulzai
Bangulzai(Bangulzae)
Brahui Bangulzai(Bangulzae)
Bangulzais Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Bangulzais
Banzozai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Banzozai
Baranzai Brahui Bangulzai(Bangulzae)
Baranzai
Baranzai Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Baranzai
Baranzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Baranzai
Baranzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Nozai Baranzai
Beguzai Brahui Rekizai Beguzai
Bhadinzai Brahui Kalandrani Ferozshazai Bhadinzai
Bhadinzai Brahui Nichari Bhadinzai
Bhaet Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Bhaet
Bhuka Brahui Bhuka
Bhuldra Brahui Bhuldra
Bijarzai Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Bijarzai
Bijarzai(Bijjarzai)
Brahui Bangulzai(Bangulzae)
Bijarzai (Bijjarzai)
Bijjarzai Brahui MuhammadHasni (Mamasani,Mohammad Hassani)
Bijjarzai
Bizanjau(Bizanjo,Bizanju)
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo,Bizanju)
Bizanzai Brahui Isazai Bizanzai
Biznari Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Biznari
Bohirzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi BohirzaiBolan Mengal(Comment:May be just the Mengals located in BolanDistrict)
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Bolan Mengal (Comment:May be just the Mengalslocated in Bolan District)
Brahimzai Brahui Lahri Brahimzai
Brahimzai Brahui Nichari Brahimzai
Bratizai Brahui Langav Ali Bratizai
Buddazai Brahui Dehwar (Knownin Baluchistan asDehwar, in Iran-Tajak,in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun)Pringabadi Buddazai
Burakzai Brahui Kalandrani Burakzai
Burakzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Sheikh Husaini Burakzai
Burjalizai Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari BurjalizaiChakarzai Brahui MuhammadHasni (Mamasani,Mohammad Hassani)
Chakarzai Chamakazai Brahui Dehwar (Knownin Baluchistan asDehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, inAfghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun)Mastungi Chamakazai
Chamrozae
(Chamrozai)Brahui Chamrozae (Chamrozai)
Chanal Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo,Bizanju) Chanal
Chanderwari Brahui Kalandrani Chanderwari
Changozae(Changozai)Brahui Changozae(Changozai)
Charnawani Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Charnawani
Chaunk Brahui Rekizai Chaunk
Chhutta Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Chhutta
Chotwa Brahui Chotwa
Daduzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Daduzai
Dahmardag Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Dahmardag
Dallujav Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Dallujav
Darmanzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Hammalari Darmanzai
Darweshzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Tambrari (Tamarari – also noted as “Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis)
Darweshzai
Darweshzai Brahui Kalandrani Darweshzai
Dastakzai Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Dastakzai
Degiani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Degiani
Dehwar Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Dehwar

Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-
Dehgan/Deggaun)
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as
Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun)
Dhahizai Nichari Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Badduzai Dhahizai Nichari
Dhajola Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Dhajola
Dilsadzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Miraji (Mir Haji) Dilsadzai
Dilshadzai Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Dilshadzai Dinarzai Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Dinarzai
Dinarzai Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Dinarzai
Dinas Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Dinas
Dodai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Dodai
Dodaki Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as
Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Dodaki
Dombkis Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Dombkis Dost Muhammadzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Dost Muhammadzai
Dostenzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Zarrakzai Dostenzai
Driszai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Driszai
Durrakzai (Darakzai) Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Durrakzai (Darakzai)
Fakir Muhammadzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Fakir Muhammadzai
Fakirozai Brahui Rekizai Fakirozai
Fakirzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Tambrari (Tamarari – also noted as “Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis)
Fakirzai
Fakirzai Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Fakirzai
Fakirzai Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Fakirzai
Ferozai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Umrani (Umarari / Omarari / Homarari – also noted as
“Umarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis) Ferozai Ferozshazai Brahui Kalandrani Ferozshazai
Gabarari Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Gabarari
Gad Kush Brahui Muhammad Shahi Khedrani Gad Kush
Gador Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gador
Gahazai Brahui Langav Ali Gahazai
Gaji Khanzai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Gaji Khanzai
Gajizai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)Tambrari (Tamarari – also noted as “Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis)
Gajizai
Garr Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Garr
Garrani Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Garrani
Gazainzai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Gazainzai
Gazazai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Gazazai
Gazbur Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Gazbur
Gazgi Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Gazgi
Ghaibizai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Ghaibizai
Ghaibizai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Umrani (Umarari / Omarari / Homarari – also noted as “Umarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis)
Ghaibizai
Ghul Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani , Sherwani)
Ghul
Ghulamani Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Ghulamani
Ghulamzai Brahui Nichari Ghulamzai
Gichki Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Gichki
Gichkis Brahui Gichkis
Gichkizai Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai
Gichkizai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Gichkizai
Goharazai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Mastungi Goharazai
Gorgejzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Gorgejzai
Gorgezai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Gorgezai
Gowahrizai Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Gowahrizai
Guhramzai (Gwahramzai)
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Guhramzai (Gwahramzai)
Gujjar Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Gujjar
Gul Muhammadzai Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Gul Muhammadzai
Gungav Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Gungav
Gurgnari Brahui Gurgnari
Gwahramzai Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Gwahramzai
Gwahramzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Gwahramzai
Gwahramzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Gwahramzai
Gwahrani Brahui Muhammad Shahi Gwahrani
Gwahranjau Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Gwahranjau
Gwand Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Badduzai Gwand
Gwaramzai Brahui Rekizai Gwaramzai
Gwaranjau Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi Gwaranjau
Gwaranzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Hammalari Gwaranzai
Habashazai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Habashazai
Haidarzai Brahui Lahri Haidarzai
Hajizai Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Hajizai
Hajizai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Samezai (Samakzai) Hajizai
Hajizai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Ramadanzai Hajizai
Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis) Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Halid Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Halid
Hammalari Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Hammalari
Haruni Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Haruni
Harunis Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Harunis
Hasanari Brahui Kalandrani Hasanari
Hasilkhanzai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani)
Hasilkhanzai
Hasni Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani)
Hasni
Hirind Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Hirind
Horuzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Miraji (Mir Haji) Horuzai
Hotmanzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Hotmanzai
Hotmanzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Hotmanzai
Husain Khanzai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi Husain Khanzai
Husaini Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Husaini
Idozai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Idozai
Ihtiarzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Bahl (upper) Nakib Ihtiarzai
Isai (Isazai, Esazai) Brahui Gichkis Isai (Isazai, Esazai)
Isazai Brahui Isazai
Isazai Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Isazai
Isazai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Isazai
Isazai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Isazai
Isiani Brahui Raisani Isiani
Issufkhanzai Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Issufkhanzai
Jahl (lower)
Nakib Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan)
Jahl (lower) Nakib
Jalambari Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Jalambari
Jallabzai Brahui Kalandrani Jallabzai
Jamalzai Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Jamalzai
Jamandzai Brahui Langav Ali Jamandzai
Jamot Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Jamot
Jangizai Brahui Rekizai Jangizai
Jararzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo,
Bizanju)
Hammalari Jararzai
Jarzai Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra,
Sarpara)
Jarzai
Jattak Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak
Jaurazai Brahui Langav Jaurazai
Jhalawan
Mengal
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Jhalawan Mengal
Jhangirani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Jhangirani
Jhikko Brahui Muhammad Shahi Jhikko
Jiandari Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Jiandari
Jiandzai Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Jiandzai
Jogezal Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Jogezal
Jogizai Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani)
Jogizai
Jola Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, inAfghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Mastungi Jola Jongozai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Jongozai
Kahni Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Kahni
Kaisarzai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Kaisarzai
Kakars (Alien group contained among Ali division) Brahui Langav Ali Kakars (Alien group contained among Ali division)
Kalaghani Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Kalaghani
Kalandrani Brahui Kalandrani
Kalandranis Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Kalandranis
Kallechev Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Kallechev
Kallozai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Alizai Kallozai
Kallozai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Bahl (upper) Nakib Kallozai
Kamal Khanzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Hammalari Kamal Khanzai
Kambarani (Kambrani) Brahui Kambarani (Kambrani) Kambrari
(Kambari) Brahui Kambrari (Kambari)
Kanarzai Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Kanarzai
Karamalizai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Karamalizai
Karamshazai Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Karamshazai
Karelo Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Karelo
Karimdadzai Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Karimdadzai
Karkhizai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Karkhizai
Kasis (Alien group contained among Ali division) Brahui Langav Ali Kasis (Alien group contained among Ali division)
Kassabzai (Shahozai) Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Kassabzai (Shahozai)
Kawrizai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Zarrakzai Kawrizai
Kechizai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Kechizai
Keharai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Keharai
Kehrai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Kehrai
Khairazai Brahui Rekizai Khairazai
Khakizai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Khakizai
Khalechani Brahui Lahri Khalechani
Khanis Brahui Kambarani
(Kambrani)
Khanis
Khanzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Khanzai
Kharenazai Brahui Isazai Kharenazai
Khatizai Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Khatizai
Khedrani Brahui Muhammad Shahi Khedrani
Khidrani Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani
Khidrani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani
Khidri Brahui Gurgnari Khidri
Khidro Brahui Kalandrani Khidro
Khoedadzai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Madezai Khoedadzai
Khurasani Brahui Langav Khurasani
Khushalzai Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Khushalzai
Khwajakhel Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun)
Mastungi Khwajakhel
Khwashdadzai Brahui Nichari Khwashdadzai
Kiazai Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Kiazai
Kiazai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Kiazai
Kishani Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Kishani
Koh Badduzai Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Badduzai Koh Badduzai
Korak Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Korak
Kori Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Kori
Kotwal Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Kotwal
Kubdani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani
Kulloi Brahui Langav Kulloi
Kurd (Kurda) Brahui Kurd (Kurda)
Lahraki Brahui Nichari Lahraki

Lahri Brahui Lahri
Lahri Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Lahri
Lahrizai Brahui Kalandrani Lahrizai
Lahrki Brahui Raisani Lahrki
Lallazai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Bahl (upper) Nakib Lallazai
Langav Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Langav
Langav Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Langav
Langav Brahui Langav
Laskarizai Brahui Rekizai Laskarizai
Lijji (Lijjai) Brahui Langav Lijji (Lijjai)
Loharzai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Loharzai
Loki-Tappar Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Loki-Tappar
Lotani Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Lotani
Lotari Brahui Kalandrani Lotari
Lotiani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani
Ludani (possibly the same as Lotani) Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Ludani (possibly the same as Lotani)
Madezai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Madezai
Mahamadari Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Mahamadari
Mahmadzai
(Muhammadzai) Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Nozai Mahmadzai (Muhammadzai)
Mahmudani Brahui Gurgnari Mahmudani
Mahmudani Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Mahmudani
Mahmudari Brahui Mahmudari
Mahmudzai (Muhammadzai) Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Mahmudzai (Muhammadzai)
Makakari Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Makakari
Makali Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Makali
Malangzai Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Malangzai
Malikdadzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Malikdadzai
Malikzai Brahui Gichkis Malikzai
Mandauzai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, inAfghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi Mandauzai
Mandavzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Siahpad (Siapad) Mandavzai
Mandavzai Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani,
Mohammad Hassani)
Mandavzai
Mandozai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Mandozai
Mandwani Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Mandwani
Mardan Shahi Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani,
Mohammad Hassani)
Mardan Shahi
Mardanshai Brahui Muhammad  Hasni (Mamasani,
Mohammad Hassani) Haruni Mardanshai
Mardoi Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Mardoi
Mastungi Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun)
Mastungi
Masudani Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Masudani
Mazarani Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Mazarani
Mazarzai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Mazarzai
Mazarzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Mazarzai
Mehani Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Mehani
Mehr Alizai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi Mehr Alizai
Mehrani Brahui Raisani Mehrani
Mendazai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Mendazai
Mengal (Mingal) Brahui Mengal (Mingal)
Mengals Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Mengals
Miari (Mihari) Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Miari (Mihari)
Mir Dostzai Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Mir Dostzai
Miraji (Mir Haji) Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Miraji (Mir Haji)
Miranzai Brahui Gurgnari Miranzai
Miranzai Brahui Kalandrani Miranzai
Miranzai Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Miranzai
Miranzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Miranzai
Miranzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Miranzai
Mirgindzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Mirgindzai
Mirkanzai Brahui Langav Ali Mirkanzai
Mirwari Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Mirwari
Mirwari (Mirwani) Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani)
Misri Khanzai Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari Misri Khanzai
Mithazai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Mithazai
Motani Ramazanzai Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani)
Motani Ramazanzai
Mughalzai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun)
Mughalzai
Mughundoi Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Mughundoi
Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani,
Mohammad Hassani)
Muhammad Hasnis Brahui Langav Ali Muhammad Hasnis
Muhammad Shahi Brahui Muhammad Shahi
Muhammadzai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/
Deggaun) Pringabadi Muhammadzai
Muhammadzai Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Muhammadzai
Muhammadzai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Muhammadzai
Muhammadzai Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani)
Muhammadzai
Muhammadzai Brahui Rekizai Muhammadzai
Mulla Hasanzai Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari Mulla Hasanzai
Mullazai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Mullazai
Mullazai Brahui Rekizai Mullazai
Muridzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Muridzai
Murrai Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra,
Sarpara)
Murrai
Musa Khanzai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun)Tirchi Musa KhanzaiMusiani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musian

Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan)
Nangarzai Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Nangarzai
Nasir Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Nasir
Natwani Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Natwani
Nichari Brahui Muhammad Shahi Nichari
Nichari Brahui Nichari
Nindawari
(Nindowari, also noted as a separate clan of the Brahui- must deconflict) Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Nindawari (Nindowari, also noted as a separate clan of the Brahuimust deconflict)
Nindowari Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Nindowari
Nindwani Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Nindwani
Notakzai Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara)
Notakzai
Notani Brahui Mahmudari Notani
Notani Chhutta Brahui Langav Ali Notani Chhutta
Notezai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Notezai
Nozai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Nozai
Numrias Brahui Langav Ali Numrias
Nur
Muhammadzai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Nur Muhammadzai
Pahlwanzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Pahlwanzai
Paindzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai Bajezai Paindzai
Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani) Brahui Muhammad Shahi Pandarani (Pandrani,
Pindrani)
Pandarani (Pandrani,
Pindrani)
Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani,
Pindrani)
Pandrani Brahui Raisani Pandrani
Pandrani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Pandrani
Phullanzai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Phullanzai
Pir Walizai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi Pir Walizai
Pirkani Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Pirkani Pringabadi Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Pringabadi
Pug Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Pug Puzh Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Puzh Qazizai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Mastungi Qazizai
Radhani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi Radhani
Rahatzai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Samezai (Samakzai) Rahatzai
Rahmatzai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Rahmatzai
Rahzanzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Rahzanzai
Rahzanzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Rahzanzai
Rais Tok Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun)
Rais Tok
Raisani Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Raisani
Raisani Brahui Muhammad Shahi Raisani
Raisani Brahui Raisani
Raj-o-kabila Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Raj-o-kabila
Ramadanzai Brahui Isazai Ramadanzai
Ramadanzai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani)
Ramadanzai
Rathusainzai Brahui Raisani Rathusainzai
Razanzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Razanzai
Rekizai Brahui Rekizai
Rekizai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Rekizai
Rodeni (Rodani) Brahui Muhammad Shahi Rodeni (Rodani)
Rodeni (Rodani) Brahui Rodeni (Rodani)
Rodenzai Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara)
Rodenzai
Rustamari Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Rustamari
Rustamzai Brahui Raisani Rustamzai
Sabagazai Brahui Rekizai Sabagazai
Sabzalkhanzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi Sabzalkhanzai
Safarzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Safarzai
Sahakzai Brahui Kalandrani Sahakzai
Sahakzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Sahakzai
Sahibdadzai Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Sahibdadzai
Sahtakzai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai
Saiadzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Saiadzai
Saidzai Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Saidzai
Sajdi (Sajiti,
Sajadi) Brahui Muhammad Shahi Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi)
Sajdi (Sajiti,
Sajadi) Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi)
Sakazai Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Sakazai
Sakhtaki Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Sakhtaki
Salabi Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Salabi
Salahizai Brahui Kalandrani Salahizai
Salarzai Brahui Langav Ali Salarzai
Salarzai Brahui Langav Salarzai
Salehzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Salehzai
Samalanri Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Jhalawan Mengal Samalanri
Samezai
(Samakzai) Brahui Muhammad Shahi Samezai (Samakzai)
Sangor Brahui Mahmudari Sangor
Sanjarzai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi Sanjarzai
Sannaris (Alien group contained among Ali division) Brahui Langav Ali Sannaris (Alien group contained among Ali division)
Sarajzai Brahui Raisani Sarajzai
Sarang Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Mastungi Sarang
Sarparra
(Sirperra,
Sarpara) Brahui Muhammad Shahi Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara)
Sarparra
(Sirperra,
Sarpara)
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra,
Sarpara)
Sasoli Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo,
Bizanju)
Hammalari Sasoli
Sasoli Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Jhalawan Mengal Sasoli
Sasoli Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Sasoli
Sasoli (Sasuli) Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli)
Saulai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun)  Mastungi Saulai
Sayari Brahui Mahmudari Sayari
Sewazai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Khedrani Sewazai
Shadenzai Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Hotmanzai Shadenzai
Shadiani Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Shadiani
Shadiani Brahui Lahri Shadiani
Shadizai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Shadizai
Shadizai (Shadi) Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi)
Shadmanzai Pahlwanzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Shadmanzai Pahlwanzai
Shah Muradzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Shah Muradzai
Shahakzai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Shahakzai
Shahakzai Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Shahakzai
Shahalizai Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Shahalizai
Shahbegzai Brahui Gurgnari Shahbegzai
Shahbegzai Kambrari Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari
Shahdadzai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Shahdadzai
Shahdadzai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Jhikko Shahdadzai
Shahezai Brahui Langav Shahezai
Shahezai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Jhalawan Mengal Shahezai
Shahizai Brahui Isazai Shahizai
Shahizai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Shahizai
Shahozai Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Shahozai
Shahozai Brahui Langav Ali Shahozai
Shahozai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Shahozai
Shahozai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Shahozai
Shahozai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani , Sherwani) Alizai Shahozai
Shahozai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Shahozai
Shahristanzai Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Shahristanzai
Shahristanzai Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Shahristanzai
Shahwani
(Sherwari,
Shirwani ,
Sherwani) Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani , Sherwani)
Shahwani
(Sherwari,
Shirwani,
Sherwani) Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani, Sherwani)
Shambadai Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara)
Shambadai
Shambav Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Shambav
Shambezai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Miraji (Mir Haji) Shambezai
Shangrani Brahui Lahri Shangrani
Sheakzai Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Sheakzai
Sheikh Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Mastungi Sheikh
Sheikh Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Sheikh
Sheikh Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Husaini Sheikh
Sheikh Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Sheikh
Sheikh Ahmadi Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Sheikh Ahmadi
Sheikh Amadi Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Sheikh Amadi
Sheikh Husain Brahui Raisani Sheikh Husain
Sheikh Husaini Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Sheikh Husaini
Sheikh Hussaini Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Sheikh Hussaini
Sher Muhammadzai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Sher Muhammadzai
Sheruzai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Sheruzai
Shimmalzai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Jhikko Shimmalzai
Shoranzai Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Shoranzai
Shudanzai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Shudanzai
Siahizai Brahui Gurgnari Siahizai
Siahizai Brahui Isazai Siahizai
Siahizai Brahui Kalandrani Siahizai
Siahizai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani , Sherwani)
Siahizai
Siahizai Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Siahizai
Siahizai
(Siahhezai) Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Siahizai (Siahhezai)
Siahpad (Siapad) Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Siahpad (Siapad)
Sikhi Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Sikhi
Smailzai Brahui Kalandrani Smailzai
Sobazai Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Sobazai
Sobazai
(Subazai) Brahui Muhammad
Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Sobazai (Subazai)
Somailzai Brahui Langav Ali Somailzai
Somalzai Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Somalzai
Sulaimanzai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Sulaimanzai
Sumalari
(Sumlari) Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari)
Sumali Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Sumali
Sumarani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Sumarani
Sumarzai Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Sumarzai
Sumarzai Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra,
Sarpara)
Sumarzai
Sunari Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sunari
Sundwari Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Sundwari
Surizai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani , Sherwani)
Surizai
Surkhi Brahui Rekizai Surkhi
Surozai Brahui Muhammad Shahi Surozai
Tallikozai Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Tallikozai
Tambrari
(Tamarari – also noted as
“Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis) Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Tambrari (Tamarari – also noted as “Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis) Temurari Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Temurari
Tirchi Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi
Tolonti Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tolonti
Trasezai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai Trasezai
Tuk-Shahizai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Tuk-Shahizai
Turrazai
(Tuhranzai)
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Pringabadi Turrazai (Tuhranzai
Umarani Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari,
Shirwani , Sherwani)
Umarani
Umarzai Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Umarzai
Umrani Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Umrani
Umrani Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Umrani
Umrani
(Umarari /
Omarari /
Homarari –
also noted as
“Umarari” as a
separate clan of Brahuis) Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Umrani (Umarari / Omarari / Homarari – also noted as
“Umarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis)
Usufari Brahui Gurgnari Usufari
Usufari Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Usufari
Yaghizai Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Yaghizai
Yakub Khanzai Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Yakub Khanzai
Yusafzai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Pringabadi Yusafzai
Zagar Mengal (of Nushki)
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki)
Zagar Mengals Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Zagar Mengals
Zahhrazai Brahui Langav Ali Zahhrazai
Zahri (Zehri) Brahui Zahri (Zehri)
Zahri (Zehri) Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Zahri (Zehri)
Zahrizai
(Zahrozai) Brahui Langav Zahrizai (Zahrozai)
Zahrozai Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Zahrozai
Zahrozai Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Zahrozai
Zakarzai Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Zakarzai
Zakriazai Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Tirchi Zakriazai
Zangiani Usafi Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Zangiani Usafi
Zardazai Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Zardazai
Zarkhel Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/ Deggaun) Mastungi Zarkhel

Zarrajzau Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani)
Zarrajzau
Zarrakzai Brahui Zahri (Zehri)

Zarrakzai
Zirakani Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)Zirakani
Zirkari Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)

Zirkari Zoberani Brahui Lahri Zoberani

HIERARCHICAL LISTING OF TRIBES

Group
Tribe Division Sub-Division Section Fraction
Brahui Bajai (Barjai)
Brahui Bambakzae
Brahui Bangulzai
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Badduzai Dhahizai Nichari
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Badduzai Gwand
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Badduzai Koh Badduzai
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Badduzai
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Baranzai
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Bijarzai (Bijjarzai)
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Dinarzai
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Garrani
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Guhramzai (Gwahramzai)
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Langav
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Mandwani
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Mazarani
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Mughundoi
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Pug
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Puzh
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Saidzai
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Shadiani
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Shahozai
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae) Shoranzai
Brahui Bangulzai (Bangulzae)
Brahui Bhuka
Brahui Bhuldra
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Baduzi
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Chanal
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Gabarari
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Aidozai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Bahurzai (Bohirzai)
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Darmanzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Dost Muhammadzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Fakir Muhammadzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Ghaibizai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Gwaranzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Jararzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Kamal Khanzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Karkhizai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Langav
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Malikdadzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Nindawari (Nindowari, also noted as a separate clan of the Brahui- must deconflict)
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Safarzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Sasoli
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Shah Muradzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Shahristanzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari Sheikh Ahmadi
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Hammalari
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Lotani
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Ludani (possibly the same as Lotani)
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Mahamadari
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Nindowari
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Siahpad (Siapad) Mandavzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Siahpad (Siapad)
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Tambrari (Tamarari – also noted as “Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis) Darweshzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Tambrari (Tamarari – also noted as “Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis) Fakirzai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Tambrari (Tamarari – also noted as “Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis) Gajizai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Tambrari (Tamarari – also noted as “Tamarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis)
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Umrani (Umarari / Omarari / Homarari – also noted as “Umarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis) Ferozai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Umrani (Umarari / Omarari / Homarari – also noted as “Umarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis) Ghaibizai
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju) Umrani (Umarari / Omarari / Homarari – also noted as “Umarari” as a separate clan of Brahuis)
Brahui Bizanjau (Bizanjo, Bizanju)
Brahui Chamrozae (Chamrozai)
Brahui Changozae (Changozai) Brahui Chotwa
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Alizai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Dodaki
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Chamakazai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Goharazai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Jola
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Khwajakhel
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Qazizai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Sarang
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Saulai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Sheikh
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi Zarkhel
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan Dehgan/Deggaun) Mastungi
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Mughalzai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Pringabadi Buddazai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Pringabadi Muhammadzai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Pringabadi Turrazai (Tuhranzai)
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Pringabadi Yusafzai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Pringabadi
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Rais Tok
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Amaduni
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Anazai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Husain Khanzai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Mandauzai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Mehr Alizai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Musa Khanzai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Pir Walizai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Sanjarzai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi Zakriazai
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tirchi
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun) Tolonti
Brahui Dehwar (Known in Baluchistan as Dehwar, in Iran-Tajak, in Bokhara-Sart, in Afghanistan-Dehgan/Deggaun)
Brahui Gichkis Isai (Isazai, Esazai)
Brahui Gichkis Malikzai
Brahui Gichkis
Brahui Gurgnari Azghalzai
Brahui Gurgnari Khidri
Brahui Gurgnari Mahmudani
Brahui Gurgnari Miranzai
Brahui Gurgnari Shahbegzai
Brahui Gurgnari Siahizai
Brahui Gurgnari Usufari
Brahui Gurgnari
Brahui Isazai Bizanzai
Brahui Isazai Kharenazai
Brahui Isazai Ramadanzai
Brahui Isazai Shahizai
Brahui Isazai Siahizai
Brahui Isazai
Brahui Kalandrani Baddajari
Brahui Kalandrani Burakzai
Brahui Kalandrani Chanderwari
Brahui Kalandrani Darweshzai
Brahui Kalandrani Ferozshazai Bhadinzai
Brahui Kalandrani Ferozshazai
Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis) Bijarzai
Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis) Karimdadzai
Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Mir Dostzai
Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Muhammadzai
Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis) Sahibdadzai
Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Shahristanzai
Brahui Kalandrani Halazai (Claim connection
to the Kalandrani Brahuis)
Brahui Kalandrani Hasanari
Brahui Kalandrani Jallabzai
Brahui Kalandrani Khidro
Brahui Kalandrani Lahrizai
Brahui Kalandrani Lotari
Brahui Kalandrani Miranzai
Brahui Kalandrani Sahakzai
Brahui Kalandrani Salahizai
Brahui Kalandrani Siahizai
Brahui Kalandrani Smailzai
Brahui Kalandrani
Brahui Kambarani (Kambrani) Ahmadzae (Ahmadzai)
Brahui Kambarani (Kambrani) Khanis
Brahui Kambarani (Kambrani)
Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Baranzai
Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Khushalzai
Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Kiazai
Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Miranzai
Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Sheikh Amadi
Brahui Kambrari (Kambari) Sobazai
Brahui Kambrari (Kambari)
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Gorgezai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Madezai Khoedadzai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Madezai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Masudani
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Muhammadzai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Phullanzai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Ahmadzai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Bahdinzai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Driszai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Khakizai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai Rahmatzai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Sahtakzai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Shadizai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Shudanzai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda) Zardazai
Brahui Kurd (Kurda)
Brahui Lahri Brahimzai
Brahui Lahri Haidarzai
Brahui Lahri Khalechani
Brahui Lahri Shadiani
Brahui Lahri Shangrani
Brahui Lahri Zoberani
Brahui Lahri
Brahui Langav Ali Alamkhanzai
Brahui Langav Ali Allahyarzai
Brahui Langav Ali Bratizai
Brahui Langav Ali Gahazai
Brahui Langav Ali Jamandzai
Brahui Langav Ali Kakars (Alien groupcontained among Alidivision)
Brahui Langav Ali Kasis (Alien groupcontained among Alidivision)
Brahui Langav Ali Mirkanzai
Brahui Langav Ali Muhammad Hasnis
Brahui Langav Ali Notani Chhutta
Brahui Langav Ali Numrias
Brahui Langav Ali Salarzai
Brahui Langav Ali Sannaris (Alien groupcontained among Alidivision)
Brahui Langav Ali Shahozai
Brahui Langav Ali Somailzai
Brahui Langav Ali Zahhrazai
Brahui Langav Ali
Brahui Langav Jaurazai
Brahui Langav Khurasani
Brahui Langav Kulloi
Brahui Langav Lijji (Lijjai)
Brahui Langav Salarzai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Bangulzais
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Dombkis
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Harunis
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Isazai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Kalandranis
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Khatizai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Malangzai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Mengals
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Nur Muhammadzai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Shahalizai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Tallikozai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Zagar Mengals
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi) Zakarzai
Brahui Langav Shadizai (Shadi)
Brahui Langav Shahezai
Brahui Langav Zahrizai (Zahrozai)
Brahui Langav
Brahui Mahmudari Notani
Brahui Mahmudari Sangor
Brahui Mahmudari Sayari
Brahui Mahmudari
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Ahmadzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Allahdadzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Angalzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Baranzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Bolan Mengal (Comment: May be just the Mengals located in Bolan District)
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Chhutta
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Gazazai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Ghulamani
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Gorgejzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Gungav
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Jhalawan Mengal Samalanri
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Jhalawan Mengal Sasoli
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Jhalawan Mengal Shahezai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Jhalawan Mengal
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Dhajola
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Gichki
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Mehani
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Miranzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Rahzanzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Shahozai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani Umarzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Khidrani
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Mahmudzai(Muhammadzai)
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Makali
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Mardoi
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Miraji (Mir Haji) Dilsadzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Miraji (Mir Haji) Horuzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Miraji (Mir Haji) Shambezai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Miraji (Mir Haji)
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Mirwari
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Mullazai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Natwani
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Pahlwanzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Raisani
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Sasoli
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Shadmanzai Pahlwanzai Ababaki
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Shadmanzai Pahlwanzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Shahizai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Shambav
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Sheikh
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Tuk-Shahizai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Umrani
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai Amirzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai Bajezai Paindzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai Bajezai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai Trasezai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Badinzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Nozai Baranzai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Nozai Mahmadzai(Muhammadzai)
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki) Nozai
Brahui Mengal (Mingal) Zagar Mengal (of Nushki)
Brahui Mengal (Mingal)
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Fakirzai
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Gazbur
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Gujjar
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Gwahramzai
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Halid
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Jalambari
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Jiandari
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Kallechev
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Kanarzai
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Karamshazai
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Korak
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Kotwal
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Rustamari
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Salabi
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani) Sumarzai
Brahui Mirwari (Mirwani)
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Bangulzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Bijjarzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Chakarzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Charnawani
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Dahmardag
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Dastakzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohamma Hassani) Dilshadzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Durrakzai (Darakzai)
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Fakirzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Gaji Khanzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Hajizai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Haruni Mardanshai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Haruni
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Husaini Sheikh
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Husaini
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Idozai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Jongozai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Kalaghani
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Karamalizai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)Kechizai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)Keharai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)Kehrai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)Kiazai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)Loharzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Mandavzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Mandozai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Mardan Shahi
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Mazarzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Nindwani
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, MohammadHassani) Notezai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Shahakzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Shahdadzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Shahozai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Sheikh Hussaini
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Sheruzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Siahizai (Siahhezai)
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Sobazai (Subazai)
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Sulaimanzai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, MohammadHassani)Sumali
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, MohammadHassani) Yaghizai
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, MohammadHassani)Zangiani Usafi
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, MohammadHassani)Zirakani
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani) Zirkari
Brahui Muhammad Hasni (Mamasani, Mohammad Hassani)
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Bambkazai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Dodai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Gwahrani
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Jhikko Bahadurzai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Jhikko Shahdadzai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Jhikko Shimmalzai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Jhikko
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Khedrani Gad Kush
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Khedrani Sewazai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Khedrani
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Nichari
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani)
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Raisani
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Rodeni (Rodani)
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi)
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Samezai (Samakzai) Ahmadkhanzai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Samezai (Samakzai) Hajizai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Samezai (Samakzai) Rahatzai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Samezai (Samakzai)
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara)
Brahui Muhammad Shahi Surozai
Brahui Muhammad Shahi
Brahui Nichari Bahadur Khanzai
Brahui Nichari Bhadinzai
Brahui Nichari Brahimzai
Brahui Nichari Ghulamzai
Brahui Nichari Khwashdadzai
Brahui Nichari Lahraki
Brahui Nichari
Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani) Jogizai
Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani) Motani Ramazanzai
Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani) Muhammadzai
Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani) Zarrajzau
Brahui Pandarani (Pandrani, Pindrani)
Brahui Raisani Isiani
Brahui Raisani Lahrki
Brahui Raisani Mehrani
Brahui Raisani Pandrani
Brahui Raisani Rathusainzai
Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Akhtarzai
Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Gowahrizai
Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Gul Muhammadzai
Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Issufkhanzai
Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Jogezal
Brahui Raisani Rustamzai Sheakzai
Brahui Raisani Rustamzai
Brahui Raisani Sarajzai
Brahui Raisani Sheikh Husain
Brahui Raisani
Brahui Rekizai Afghanzai
Brahui Rekizai Beguzai
Brahui Rekizai Chaunk
Brahui Rekizai Fakirozai
Brahui Rekizai Gwaramzai
Brahui Rekizai Jangizai
Brahui Rekizai Khairazai
Brahui Rekizai Laskarizai
Brahui Rekizai Muhammadzai
Brahui Rekizai Mullazai
Brahui Rekizai Sabagazai
Brahui Rekizai Surkhi
Brahui Rekizai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Dinarzai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Jamalzai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Jiandzai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Nangarzai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Nasir
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Pirkani
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Shahakzai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Somalzai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Yakub Khanzai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani) Zahrozai
Brahui Rodeni (Rodani)
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Ahmedari
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Ajibani
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Bhaet
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gador
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Biznari
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Makakari
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Sakazai
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Sundwari
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Temurari
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai Usufari
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi) Gichkizai
Brahui Sajdi (Sajiti, Sajadi)
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara) Adamzai
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara) Jarzai
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara) Murrai
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara) Notakzai
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara) Rodenzai
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara) Shambadai
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara) Sumarzai
Brahui Sarparra (Sirperra, Sarpara)
Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari Burjalizai
Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari Misri Khanzai
Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari Mulla Hasanzai
Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani, Sherwani)
Brahui Shahbegzai Kambrari
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Alizai Kallozai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Alizai Shahozai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Alizai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Ghul
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Hasilkhanzai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Hasni
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Kishani
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Ramadanzai Hajizai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Ramadanzai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Siahizai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Surizai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Balochzai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Gazainzai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Kaisarzai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Sher Muhammadzai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani Zahrozai
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani) Umarani
Brahui Shahwani (Sherwari, Shirwani , Sherwani)
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Balokhanzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Daduzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Dehwar
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Gwahramzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Hotmanzai Shadenzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Hotmanzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Isazai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Loki-Tappar
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Mahmudani
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Muridzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Razanzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Saiadzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Sakhtaki
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Sheikh Husaini
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari)
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Sheikh Husaini Burakzai
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Sikhi
Brahui Sumalari (Sumlari) Zahri (Zehri)
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi Adenazai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi Bohirzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi Gwaranjau
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi Radhani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi Sabzalkhanzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Bajoi
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Adamani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Banzozai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Gazgi
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Jhangirani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Sumarani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak Umrani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Jattak
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Ahmadzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Alimuradzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Dallujav
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Gichkizai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Miari (Mihari)
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Miranzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Rahzanzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani Shahozai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Khidrani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Baduzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Hirind
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Kahni
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Mithazai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani Salehzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Lotiani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Dinas
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Khanzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Isazai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Kassabzai (Shahozai)
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Mendazai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Rekizai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Sahakzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani Siahizai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Kubdani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani Raj-o-kabila
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Musiani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Ajibari
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Akhundani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Degiani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Garr
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Gwahranjau
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Hotmanzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Jamot
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Karelo
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Kori
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Lahri
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan)
Bahl (upper) Nakib Ihtiarzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan)
Bahl (upper) Nakib Kallozai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan)
Bahl (upper) Nakib Lallazai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan)
Bahl (upper) Nakib
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Aidozai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Gwahramzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Habashazai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Mazarzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib Mirgindzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan) Jahl (lower) Nakib
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Nakib (Counted among the Sasoli, but really tenants of the Khan)
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Pandrani
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli) Sheikh
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sasoli (Sasuli)
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Sunari
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Zarrakzai Dostenzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Zarrakzai Kawrizai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri) Zarrakzai
Brahui Zahri (Zehri)

Reference:

1. http://www.geocities.com/pak_history/baluchistan.html accessed on 15 August 2009.
2. The Brahui tribes were probably in the region long before the arrival of the migrating series of invaders from the east and may have been the original inhabitants of the region.
Alone among the region’s inhabitants, the Brahui speak Dravidian, a language found deep within India.
3. http://www.geocities.com/pak_history/baluchistan.html accessed on 15 August 2009 and Asimov, M.S. and Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol. 4, UNESCO, 1999, pg. 302.
4. Imperial Gazatteer of India, Provincial Series: Baluchistan, Vol. 3, Calcutta, 1908, pg. 28
5. Ibid, pg. 14.
6. Gait, Edward Albert, Census of India, 1901, pg. 67.
7. Ibid, pg. 66.
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalat_(princely_state). Accessed 10 August 2009.
9. See Selig Harrison, In Afghanistan’s Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptation, Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1981.
10. In March 1948, the Pakistani army surrounded Kalat city and attacked the Khan’s palace with jets left behind by the British, killing more than 50 Baluch soldiers, looted the palace, removed records, and arrested Khan Ahmadyar Khan.
11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balochistan_conflict accessed 20 August 2009. Additional information is available in Selig Harrison’s “Nightmare in Baluchistan,” Foreign Policy,
No. 32 (Autumn, 1978), pg. 145.
12. Bruce, C.E., Waziristan, 1936-1937: Problems and Solutions, Aldershot: Gale and Polder, pg. 52.
13. Ibid, pg. 54.
14. Harrison, pg. 139.
15. Harrison, pp. 139-140.
16. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1022648,00.html accessed 20 August 2009.
17. Ibid.
18. http://www.dawn.com/2006/08/27/top1.htm accessed 21 August 2009.
19. http://www.paktribune.com/news/print.php?id=158760 accessed 21 August 2009. According to the article, Pakistan intelligence agencies located Brahmdakh and
demanded of Afghan government to hand him over to Pakistani authorities. Pakistan intelligence agencies demanded the Afghans hand over Brahmdakh to Pakistan as he was
involved in several acts of murder and terrorism, their usual complaint about tribal leaders leading insurgencies.
20. Papers Related to the Affairs of Khelat, No. 482, dated 14th December 1869, Enclosure 3 in No. 1, from R. G. Sandeman, Officiating Deputy Commissioner, Dera Ghazee Khan
to Lieutenant-Colonel S. F. Graham, Commissioner and Superintendent, Derajat Division.
21. Papers Related to the Affairs of Khelat, Enclosure 1 in No.1, No. 8, dated 11th January 1870, from Lieutentant-Colonel S. F. Graham, Commissioner and Superintendent, Derajat
Division. To T. H. Thornton, Esq., D. L. C., secretary to the Government of Punjab.
22. Kukreja, Veena, Contemporary Pakistan: Political Processes, Conflicts, and Crises, pg. 131.
23. The Marri tribe does not use the same terms for its elements. Some sources refer to the element between tuman and pali as a takkar rather than a para.
24. Tribe, clan, or division/section heads are often referred to as sardars as well.
25. Narui or Nharui is also a term meaning “non-hill men” often used by the Brahui ethnic group to refer to all Baluch.
26. This list is far from comprehensive and includes only those Baluch tribes most commonly listed.
27. There are likely several different Rakhshani groups that may have split from a single source to become independent tribes or join other tribes.
28. Little is known about the Baluch living in Afghanistan. They do not seem to have a significant relationship with the Baluch in Iran or Pakistan.
29. Little is known about the Baluch living in Iran. With the exception of the Nausherwanis, they do not seem to have a significant relationship with the Baluch in Afghanistan
or Pakistan. Most information on Iranian Baluch comes from two sources from the early 1900s.

…………………………………

Tribal Analysis Center

Traditional anthropological research conducted among tribes inhabiting remote areas where insurgents and criminals operate has become increasingly difficult to implement. Studies carried out among people living in small-scale societies now are nearly impossible due to the physical dangers associated with the civil and religious unrest found in those areas. Swat, for example, has become
so dangerous that Frederick Barth’s studies only could be repeated at the risk of the investigator’s life. Similar research is not feasible among Burma’s Rohinga tribes located on both sides of the border with Bangladesh, as well as with the Pashtuns in Afghanistan’s interior and within Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas, where even Pakistan’s army enters with reluctance. Given the difficulties of conducting direct fieldwork in conflictive areas, the Tribal Analysis Center utilizes an indirect approach. Using multidisciplinary research, we seek to collect and analyze data obtained from a wide variety of sources, both current and historical. In the absence of new ethnographic fieldwork to update our base of knowledge, the Tribal Analysis Center compiles and summarizes existing research and documents on tribal societies, combining this material with contemporary press reports and articles. We assume that much can be gleaned from well-informed observers who are not anthropologists, ranging from journalists and travelers to government officials.

Please visit us at:
http://www.tribalanalysiscenter.com

Tribal Distribution map

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Posted by on December 24, 2011 in Baloch Culture, Balochistan

 

A Cultural Anthropology of Baluchs


By: Pirmohamad M. Zehi
Edited by: Shapour Suren-Pahlav

The Baluchis are the ancient genuine Iranians who have their exclusive and special celebrations and feats.

Basluchis first moved to the region in the twelfth century. During the Moghul period, this territory became known as “Baluchistan.”

Their name, “Baluch/Baloch,” is shrouded in controversy. Some say it means “nomad,” while others claim that it is an Aryan (Old Persian) word meaning “the cock’s crest.”

Balochi language is spoken in Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, the Persian Gulf Arab-States, Turkmenistan and East Africa. It is classified as a member of the Iranian group of the Indo-European language family which includes Kurdish, Persian, Pashto, Dari, Tajik, Ossetian. Baluchi is closely related to Kurdish and Persian.

There are two main dialects: Eastern and Western. It is difficult to estimate the total number of Baluchi speakers, but there are probably around six million, most of whom speak Western Baluchi, which is also the dialect that has been most widely used in Baluchi literature. Within the Western dialect are two further dialects, Rakhshani (in the northern areas) and Makrani (in the south). The areas where Eastern Baluchi dialects are spoken (the north-eastern areas of Pakistani Baluchistan, Punjab and Sindh) are in many ways less developed, especially when it comes to education, which accounts for why it is little used in the written form.

For a curious visitor who arrives in ancient province of Sakestan, or today Sistan va Baluchistan, the first interesting issue that attracts the attention most is the way Baluchis are dressed up. Baluchis have preserved their way of clothing with a slight change.

Men wear long shirts, loose pants resembling Partho-Sasanid outfits, added by a turban around their heads while women put on loose dress and pants with needle works that are special of the people of the area and is not common in other parts of the country.

The upper part of the dress and sleeves are decorated with needle works, an artistic work that is specific of the clothing of the women Baluchis. They cover their hair with a scarf that is called `Sarig’ in the local dialect.

Baluchi women usually put on gold ornaments such as necklace and bracelet but their special jewelry is `Dorr’ or heavy earrings that are fastened to the head with gold chains so that their heavy weight will not cause the tearing of the ear. They usually wear a gold brooch called `Tasni’ that are made by local jewelers in various shapes and are used to fasten the two parts of the dress over the chest.

Apart from the dressing style of the Baluchis, there are interesting points in the way they live and in their traditions and customs that this article tries to illustrate in parts. Indigenous and local traditions and customs were of greater importance to the Baluchis in the past as apparently up to about half a century ago when the central and provincial government of the chieftains were imposed as the individual dictatorships.

Therefore, it can be concluded that there were no formulated laws and regulations in order to regulate social behaviors. Under such circumstances, traditions and customs in fact filled the vacuum caused by the absence of laws which were used in the regulation of many social relations and therefore enjoyed special credit among the Baluchi tribal people.

Abdolghaffar Nadim in his book `Gashin’ that is written in Baluchi language says: “The Baluchi folklore is being inspired by the Baluchi way of life and, therefore, could have addressed many needs of the tribal people who were forced to settle their disputes on the basis of their traditions and customs in the absence of a powerful central government.”

Here, it is only enough to review the Baluchi traditions within the two categories of cooperation and feasts:

A.COOPERATION

1. Beggari:
This is a custom specific of the time when the Baluchi youth reaches the age of marriage but apparently his family cannot afford the marriage expenses due to their economic condition. Under such circumstances, the youth would go to his relatives and friends and would discuss with them his decision about marriage and would ask for their `Beggari’, or in other words, their contribution.

Such a tradition is so strongly respected that even the poorest member of the family cannot remain indifferent towards such a demand and feels obliged to pay a certain amount of money in cash or offer material aid. Lack of participation in such a benevolent affair will cause humiliation and disgrace. Therefore, although Beggari is a voluntary contribution, however, a social compulsion can be traced in it somehow. Even in the case of those who have no children and cannot benefit from the advantages of Beggari in future, participation in this benevolent act guarantees further social credit. As a result of this, marriage is being made more easily among Baluchis as the community is meeting the cost.

2. Hashar:
This is a custom that is applied when an individual cannot perform a task alone and needs help of the others.

Traditionally, working for money is not customary, and those who need help would go to their relatives and friends and would inform them of their decision to do a special job on a specific day and for that purpose they need a certain number of work force. Under such circumstances, as many volunteers may join the collective work without being paid.

If the work is accomplished within a day, the only thing that the employer has to do is to prepare lunch and dinner for the workers by usually slaughtering a sheep for making the required food. If the work takes longer, more preparations will be made and new volunteers will substitute the previous ones.

However, there would be enough volunteers to complete the work through collective cooperation, as it is not customary to give a negative response to the call for contribution.

Such a habit is mostly customary in rural areas where people are mainly engaged in agriculture where Hashar is being practiced in various stages of the work from cultivation to harvest. It is also widely practiced in building rural houses and bridges and in collecting dates. Such a habit is still practiced given its positive social effects despite the fact that paid work is gradually established.

3. Bagi:
This custom was widely practiced in the past while these days it is losing importance in areas going through the trend of urbanization.

In the practice of such a tradition, people are used to cook extra food and would distribute it among needy people in their neighborhood. Those who were well off and could have better nutrition would carefully observe this.

The positive social impact of such a tradition has removed the negative feeling of humiliation as receiving Bagi is not tantamount to receiving donations but rather is some sort of contribution among neighbors and is not limited to a specific person or a specific family.

Bagi is not merely confined to consumption but is performed in a wider dimension that forges greater convergence among neighbors and minimizes probable disputes. At the meantime, it helps fair distribution of limited facilities.

4. Divan:
Settlement of disputes in their everyday life is of great importance. In order to solve problems, people would gather in a place and while studying various aspects of disputes, they try to find the best possible solution in an effort to secure satisfaction of the parties involved. The place in the local dialect is called `Divan’ and is normally a house that belongs to the eldest member of the community.

Of course Divan is not merely exclusive for the settlement of disputes but is also used for exchange of information and consultations for the coordination of affairs. However, the significance of Divan at the time of the settlement of disputes lies in the fact that although decision-making at Divan is not legally valid, however, it is applicable and is rarely ignored by the parties to the dispute.

The reason is that presence of the gathering at the place is to some extent the executive and moral guarantee for the parties to the dispute and if one party for any reason ignores the agreement reached at Divan, in fact it would damage its own social credibility. If Divan fails to settle the dispute, the case will be solved on the basis of the rules of the religion.

The tradition of Divan is being gradually forgotten in both rural and urban areas but it is still being enforced among some tribes. A unified Judicial system in fact have substituted traditional Divan and the elderly people are still settling regulations in rural and urban areas but not completely as in primary stages attempts are made to resolve the disputes through local traditions and at the Divans of the elderly.

5. Mayar:

The habit is inspired by a social reality and need for the support of the oppressed against the oppressor. When a powerful individual is oppressing a powerless person for any reason, the former can seek help from a stronger person who has enough power to defend his right. Given the undertakings that the host feels towards the person who seeks help as `Mayar’, he is free either to accept the demand or deny it.

But, as soon as he accepts, the social tradition puts the responsibility of the Mayar’s defense on the shoulder of the host. Of course, the importance of the tradition becomes further evident when the person who seeks help is not guilty and whose rights have been trampled upon. However, when the person seeks help according to the tradition of Mayar, he becomes a member of the family and tribe of the host and can enjoy his support until his problem is solved.

Sometimes the situation will remain unchanged forever and the person who seeks help will remain in the new condition. Therefore, it will become part of the responsibility of the host to find a job for the person who seeks help and puts enough capital at his disposal. This will help enable the powerless people to defend themselves against the oppressors.

6. Karch-va-Kapon:
This tradition is practiced when a person for any reason kills someone else, either intentionally or unintentionally. Under such circumstances an unreasonable feeling of revenge will afflict the Baluchi tribes to the extent that no matter to what tribe the murderer belonged, if he is out of reach, a member of his family or one of his relatives can be killed in his place or, in other words, take revenge.

Under these circumstances many innocent people will become victim of such a revenge merely for belonging to a certain family or tribe. At this moment, in an effort to prevent further bloodshed, the elderly members of the family resort to the custom of `shroud and knife.’ They send the murderer together with a knife and a piece of white cloth to the family of the person who has been killed and they are free either to punish him or forgive him.

However, punishment of the murderer is not a proven act from social and scientific points of view while forgiveness is the manifestation of generosity. For this reason, the murderer will be forgiven and returned to his family.

Sometimes it may happen that in order to remove all the hostilities and misunderstandings, the two families prepare marriages as a means to put aside differences. Of course, sometimes ransom would be demanded. In that case the family of the murderer or the tribe to which he belongs will pay the money.

Although prosecution of the murderer falls within the authority of the law, however, there are still evidences indicating that tribal people are willing to safeguard the tradition of `shroud and knife’.

7. Patardeyag:
This tradition is practiced when there is a quarrel between two or more members of a tribe. The side that is guilty of fomenting the quarrel accepts to apologize but not verbally rather through a mediator who is usually an elderly of the tribe. No matter how deep the difference, the other party usually accepts the apology, as its rejection will cause criticism of others.

Following the acceptance of the apology, the side that had fomented the quarrel will invite the other party to a dinner party through the mediator and a sheep is slaughtered on the occasion. There is no need for verbal apology and normally no word would be said about issues causing the dispute. Holding the Patardeyag ceremony implies acceptance of the apology and removal of all differences.

B. FEATS

1. Mangir:
The important Baluchi traditions are mainly in connection with their ceremonies and feats.

The marriage ceremony stands prominently among such festivities as it goes through different stages starting from engagement to the wedding ceremony. Public participation in the wedding ceremony is normal as in other parts of the country but with slight differences. But there is one exclusive difference in the wedding ceremony and that is the Mangir ceremony.

It seems that the ceremony is a custom acquired by the Baluchi tribes from other customs. Mangir is the ceremony for the simultaneous mass marriage of several couples for various reasons, notably economic considerations.

What further supports the idea is the holding of mass wedding ceremony among lower class people of the society. This would not only reduce the costs but would also economize in time as in the past wedding ceremonies used to last for seven days.

2. Sepat:
Festivities that are held in Baluchistan at the time of the birth of new babies are called Sepat. Some parts of the ceremonies are influenced by superstitious presumptions believing that both the baby and the mother are threatened by a genie called Aal as it awaits the opportunity to seize and swallow the liver of the baby and the mother.

Therefore, in order to prevent such a happening the relatives of the mother and the baby stay awake for several nights and pray to God and seek His help in order to protect the mother and the baby against the genie.

However, there are good and bad customs among the Baluchi tribes that demand more research works and studies.

The Baluchis same as other Iranians are known for their cultural specifications such as hospitality, bravery, generosity, faithfulness, and moral commitment and mostly Iranian nationalism.


*** Note: This article is the courtesy of CAIS at SOAS.

 
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Posted by on December 24, 2011 in Baloch Culture

 

The Brahui Race

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• INTRODUCTION
The Nation known as the Brahui (also Brohi) live in the rugged hills of Balochistan. Various explanations of the name Brahui have been suggested. The most likely one is that it is a variation of Barohi, meaning “mountain dweller” or “highlander.”
During the seventeenth century, the Brahui rose to prominence in Kalat, in Baluchistan.. For the next 300 years there was an unbroken line of Brahui rulers. The British eventually acquired control over the strategically located Kalat, although the state remained independent until it was incorporated into Pakistan in 1948.

• LOCATION
Estimates of the Brahui population vary from 861,000 to over 1.5 million. Most of this number is concentrated in Pakistan’s Baluchistan Province around the town of Kalat. Brahui-speakers are also found in southern Afghanistan and Iran.
The Brahui homeland lies on the Kalat Plateau, where elevations vary between 7,000–8,000 feet (2,100–2,400 meters). The region is extremely arid (dry), with annual rainfall averaging less than eight inches (twenty centimeters). Strong northwesterly winds prevail through the area, bringing dust from the Iranian deserts and scorching temperatures in summer, and bitter cold in winter. The plateau consists of extensive areas of barren rock, or hills with a thin cover of drought-resistant vegetation.

LANGUAGE
The Brahui language is related to the languages spoken in South India. This language similarilty to people living almost 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) away has long puzzled South Asian linguists (people who study language). There is no Brahui script. Many Brahui-speakers are bilingual, speaking Baluchi or other local languages.

LKLORE
A Brahui story tells of Mulla Mansur, an orphan who got a job in the house of a qadi (a Muslim religious leader). The qadi was an insensitive man. Even though Mansur had served him loyally for seven long years, he beat him over a trifling mistake. Mansur left the qadi and took to traveling the world. He met an old shepherd, fell in love with his daughter, and married her. When Mansur and his wife returned to his home, the beauty of his wife caused such a stir that everyone from the qadi to the king desired to possess her. However, Mansur’s wife was steadfast in her fidelity to her husband. When the qadi continued to make advances and tried to seduce her, she exposed him publicly. All the people joined in condemning the qadi, and the king banished him from the Brahui lands. This tale presents the Brahui view of the qualities and strength of character desirable in a wife, as well an element of scepticism toward religious leaders who preach purity to the world but practice otherwise.

• RELIGION
The Brahui are Muslim, belonging mostly to the Sunni sect of Islam. They follow Islamic religious beliefs and practices as set out in the Qu’ran (Koran), though many of their social customs are Indian in origin. Communal worship focuses on the mosque, and mullahs (Muslim priests) see to the spiritual and ritual needs of the people. Reverence for saints (pirs) is also deeply entrenched in Brahui culture. Every family has its particular saint, and women often keep in their houses some earth (khwarda) from the saint’s shrine to be used in time of need. The Brahui believe in sorcery and possession by jinn or evil spirits. A mullah or sayyed (holy man) is often called in to read from the Qu’ran or provide charms and amulets to exorcise these spirits. Should this fail, a sheikh, who is known for his power over jinn may cast them out by dancing.

MAJOR HOLIDAYS
The Brahui observe the usual holy days of the Muslim calendar. The holiest of all is the eve of the tenth day of the month of Muharram, which is known as Imamak . Women prepare special dishes of meat and rice during the day. The family gathers near sunset in the presence of a mullah (Muslim priest), who reads from the Qu’ran and recites prayers for the dead over the food. Dishes of food are then sent to relatives and neighbors, who reciprocate with their own offerings. The following morning is an occasion for the head of the house to visit the graveyard to pray at the graves of his dead relatives.

• RITES OF PASSAGE
The birth of a son is of utmost importance for a Brahui. A daughter is seen as little more than a gift to one’s neighbor. When a son is born, the father announces it to the community by firing gunshots in the air. Various rituals are followed to protect the mother and child from the attention of witches and jinn (evil spirits). Sheep are killed (two for a son and one for a daughter) and a feast held for relatives, friends, and neighbors. The child is then named, sometimes after a worthy ancestor. The head-shaving ritual (sar-kuti) is performed by the time the child is two years old, often at the shrine of a favored saint. A male child may undergo circumcision (sunnat) within six months, though the cost associated with the celebrations cause many to postpone it until as late as the age of ten or twelve.
No particular ceremonies accompany the male reaching puberty. An unusual rite is reported to be followed when a girl begins to menstruate for the first time. At sunset, the mother arranges three stones in a triangular pattern on the ground and has her daughter leap over them three times. It is thought that this will ensure that the girl’s periods during the rest of her life will last no more than three days. If a girl were not married as a child, she would be soon after puberty.
At death, word is sent to relatives and friends, who gather for the funeral. A shroud is sent for from outside the house, and when the mullah (Muslim priest) arrives, the body is carried to a place of washing. It is washed by the mullah and near kinsmen (or the mullah’s wife and female relatives, in the case of a woman), then wrapped in the shroud. The body is taken in procession to the graveyard, with the mourners reciting the kalima, the profession of faith. At the graveside, the mullah offers the prayer for the dead, and the body is given its burial. Other rituals include the singing of dirges (moda), and a death feast (varagh). Another feast is held on the first anniversary of the death.

• RELATIONSHIPS
On meeting, the Brahui stop, shake hands, and embrace each other. The encounter continues with inquiries after each other’s health and then proceeds to an exchange of news (hal) concerning family, friends, cattle, and other matters of interest. Brahui are known for their hospitality to their guests.

• LIVING CONDITIONS
Brahui settlements essentially reflect the economic activities of their inhabitants. Pastoral nomadism was the traditional occupation of many Brahui: nomadic herders lived in tents and temporary camps, migrating with their herds in search of pasture. Pastoralism has declined in importance in recent years. Many Brahui have adopted a way of life based on a seasonal migration to differing elevations. Villages in the highlands suitable for cultivation are occupied for nine-month growing season. During the winter months, these Brahui drive their herds to the lowlands where they live in tent camps.

FAMILY LIFE
The Brahui are organized into tribes, each of which has a hereditary chief (sadar). The tribes are loosely structured units based on patrilineal descent (tracing descent through the father) and political allegiance. This clan system allows for Baluchi and Pathan groups to be incorporated into the Brahui tribal units. Some of the largest Brahui tribes are the Mengals, Zahris, and Muhammad Hosanis.
The favored marriage among the Brahui is with the father’s brother’s daughter. Marriages are arranged, although the wishes of the couple are taken into consideration. In the past, child marriage was common, though this practice is now banned under Pakistani law. The betrothal and marriage ceremonies are important events in the life of both family and tribe. Disputes within tribes are usually settled at the time of marriages. A bride price (lab) is paid by the groom’s family. Although Muslim law allows polygyny (multiple wives), economic realities mean most Brahui marriages are monogamous. Family structure tends to reflect economic systems. The nuclear family predominates among nomadic Brahui, while extended families are common among village inhabitants. Divorce, though simple, is rare. In the past, adultery was punishable by death, although such practices are forbidden by Pakistani law. Widow remarriage is accepted.

LOTHING
A young boy is given his first trousers at about three years of age, and thereafter wears clothes similar to those of adult males—the kurti (long shirt), worn over the salwar, the loose, baggy trousers found throughout the area. For men, a turban (pag) completes the outfit.
Women wear a long shift over trousers, although among Brahui nomads women wear skirts rather than trousers. Among the Brahui of the Jhalawan region, women’s shifts are typically black in color. Women’s clothes are embroidered with various patterns and designs in colored thread. Women’s ornaments include finger rings (challav), nose rings (vat), and earrings (panara). Brahui settled in the Sind region tend to dress like the Sindhi population.

• FOOD
The settled Brahui cultivate wheat and millet, which are ground into flour and baked into unleavened breads. Rice is also eaten, but usually only on special occasions. Mutton and goat are important in the diet of the Brahui. The more-affluent farmers in lowland areas may raise cattle. As is common throughout South Asia, food is eaten with one’s hands, and often from a communal platter. Milk is drunk and also made into curds, ghi (clarified butter), buttermilk, and butter. Dates, wild fruits, and vegetables are also part of the Brahui diet. Tea is drunk at meals and is also taken as part of various social ceremonies.

• EDUCATION
Levels of literacy (the ability to read and write) among the Brahui are extremely low. The 1972 census for the Kalat Division of Baluchistan Province recorded an overall literacy rate of only 6 percent in the population over ten years of age. The Brahui live in areas of Pakistan where there is no access to formal schooling, and even where schools do exist, attendance is low. In settled areas such as the Sind region where Brahui children are more likely to attend school, they are taught in the local language rather than in Brahui.

• CULTURAL HERITAGE
The Brahuis have an oral tradition of folk songs and heroic poems. These are sung by a class of professional minstrels and musicians called Dombs, who are attached to every Brahui community. Musical instruments include the rabab (an Afghan stringed instrument plucked with a piece of wood), the siroz (a stringed instrument played with a bow), and the punzik (a reed instrument). These have replaced the dambura (a three-stringed instrument played with the fingers) which is found in the more isolated areas. Dancing is an important feature at events such as weddings and funerals.

• EMPLOYMENT
Historically, the Brahui were pastoral nomads, migrating with their herds of sheep, goats, and cattle from the upland plateaus to the low-lying plains. Today, however, many Brahui have abandoned their pastoral activities in favor of transhumant (seasonal migration between lower and higher elevations) or settled agriculture. In the Kacchi lowlands, river and canal irrigation support cultivation, but settlements in other areas of the Brahui region depend on qanat irrigation, a system of tunnels dug between shafts to carry water.

• SPORTS
Horse-racing and target-shooting were traditional sports popular among the more affluent sections of the Brahui community.

• RECREATION
In the past, the Brahui had to depend on their own resources for entertainment and recreation. They found this in their family celebrations, their traditions of folk song and dance, and in the festivities accompanying religious observances. This is still true for nomadic Brahui today. Those settled in Karachi or villages on the plains have access to more modern forms of recreation.

• CRAFTS AND HOBBIES
Brahui women embroider their garments with colorful designs. Tents and rugs are made from sheep’s wool or goats’ hair.

• SOCIAL PROBLEMS
The Brahui tribes inhabit some of the harshest, most-isolated, and least-productive environments in Pakistan. This is reflected in the relative inefficiency of traditional economic systems and the generally low standards of living of the community. Belated government efforts to bring development to the region have done little for the welfare of the Brahui, who are essentially nomadic and rural in character. The Brahui are one of the many tribal minorities in a country dominated by ethnic elites such as the Punjabis and Sindhis. The lack of a written literature (what there is dates only from the 1960s) has hindered the development of a tribal consciousness, and matters are made worse by the declining numbers of people speaking Brahui. The Brahui appear to be rapidly assimilating with the surrounding Baluchi populations.

Reference::
Bray, Denys. The Life-History of a Brahui. Karachi, Pakistan: Royal Book Company, 1977 [1913].
Rooman, Anwar. The Brahuis of Quetta-Kalat Region. Memoir No. 3. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Historical Society, 1960.
Swidler, Nina. “Brahui.” In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard Weekes. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984.
WEBSITES
Embassy of Pakistan, Washington, D.C. [Online] Available http://www.pakistan-embassy.com/ , 1998.
Interknowledge Corp. [Online] Available http://www.interknowledge.com/pakistan/ , 1998.
World Travel Guide, Pakistan. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/pk/gen.html , 1998

Read more: Brahui – Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage, Relationships, Living conditions http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Norway-to-Russia/Brahui.html#ixzz1bGDOnAmg

 
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Posted by on December 19, 2011 in Balochistan

 
 
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