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Category Archives: Balochi Language Status

Balochi, Southern a report by CIA

Southern Baloch Population Map

A language of Baloch People
ISO 639-3: bcc
Population
2,770,000 in Pakistan (1998). Population total all countries: 3,405,000.
Region
South Balochistan, south Sind, Karachi. Also in Iran, Oman, United Arab Emirates.
Language map
Southern Pakistan

Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Makrani
Dialects
Coastal Balochi, Kechi (Keci), Makrani (Lotuni). Distinct from Eastern Balochi [bgp] and fairly distinct from Western Balochi [bgn].

Classification
Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi
A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal] (Pakistan).

Language development
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–15%. Radio programs. NT: 1999.
Writing system
Arabic script, Nastaliq style.
Comments
Muslim (Sunni), Zigri (Zikri).
Also spoken in:
Iran
Language name
Balochi, Southern
Population
405,000 in Iran.
Region
South Sistan va Baluchistan.
Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci
Dialects
Makrani (Lotuni).
Comments
Muslim (Sunni).

Oman

Language name
Balochi, Southern
Population
130,000 in Oman (1993). Ethnic population: 312,000 in Oman (1993).
Region
Previously in Mutrah, but now dispersed up the coast.
Language map
Oman

Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci
Dialects
Makrani (Lotuni, Zadgaali), Barahuwi, Bashgaadi, Huuti.
Language use
Ethnic Baloch who immigrated long ago are Omani citizens, but no longer speak Balochi.
Comments
From Pakistan. The majority are not Omani citizens. Muslim (Sunni).

United Arab Emirates

Language name
Balochi, Southern
Population
100,000 in United Arab Emirates.
Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci
Dialects
Makrani (Lotuni).
Comments
Come from Oman, Iran, and Pakistan. Unskilled laborers; police; military. Muslim (Sunni).

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Balochi, Western a report by CIA

Western Baloch Population Map

A language of Baloch People
ISO 639-3: bgn
Population
1,120,000 in Pakistan (1998). Population total all countries: 1,803,840.
Region
Northwest Balochistan Province. Also in Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan.
Language map
Southern Pakistan

Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci
Dialects
Lashari, Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Strongly influenced by Fars, but not intelligible with Farsi [prs].

Classification
Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi
A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal] (Pakistan).

Language development
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–15%. Newspapers. Radio programs. Bible portions: 1984.
Writing system
Arabic script, Nastaliq style, used in Afghanistan.
Comments
Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. A small body of literature. Muslim (Sunni).
Also spoken in:
Afghanistan
Language name
Balochi, Western
Population
200,000 in Afghanistan (1979).
Region
Southwest Desert Region, along Helmand River and Zaranj area.
Language map
Afghanistan

Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci
Dialects
Rakhshani (Raxshani).
Language development
Literacy rate in L1: 5%–10%. Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%.
Comments
Largely nomadic. Muslim (Sunni).

Iran

Language name
Balochi, Western
Population
451,000 in Iran (1986).
Region
North Sistan va Baluchistan Province. Half in cities and villages, half nomadic.
Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci
Dialects
Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani.
Language use
Few speak Farsi [prs] or [pes].

Comments
Distinct from Eastern and Southern Balochi [bcc]. Ethnic group: Yarahmadza. Muslim (Sunni and Shi’a).

Turkmenistan

Language name
Balochi, Western
Population
28,000 in Turkmenistan (1993).
Language map
Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan

Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci
Language use
Turkmen is literary language in Turkmenistan.
Comments
Distinct from Eastern [bgp] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. Muslim.

 
 

Balochi, Eastern a report by CIA

Eastern Baloch Population Map

A language of Baloch People

ISO 639-3: bgp
Population
1,800,000 in Pakistan (1998). 5,000,000 including L2 users of all Balochi languages. Population total all countries: 1,800,800.
Region
Northeast Balochistan,northwest Sind, southwest Punjab. Also in India.
Language: map
Southern Pakistan

Alternate names
Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Eastern Hill Balochi
Classification
Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi
A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal] (Pakistan).

Language development
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–15%. Radio programs. Bible portions: 1815–1906.
Writing system
Arabic script, Nastaliq style.
Comments
A major language in Pakistan. Distinct from Western Balochi [bgn] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. A small body of literature. Muslim (Sunni).
Also spoken in:
India
Language name
Balochi, Eastern
Population
800 in India (2007). May be L2 speakers only. Ethnic population: 95,000.
Region
Uttar Pradesh; Gujarat.
Alternate names
Balochi, Baloci, Baluci
Language use
Also use Urdu [urd].

Comments
Distinct from Western Balochi [bgn] of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan; and Southern Balochi [bcc] of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, United Arab Emirates. Muslim (Sunni).

 
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Posted by on March 29, 2011 in Balochi Language Status

 

The status of Balochi language in Iran

According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (1980), “the official language and script of Iran, the lingua franca of its people, is Persian… The use of regional and national languages in the press and mass media, however, as well as for teaching in schools the literatures written in them, is permitted in addition to Persian”. The reality, however, is quite different.

At present there are no publications in the Balochi language. A number of magazines emerged after the Islamic revolution in 1979, but were closed down soon after, due to pressure from the authorities. There is no provision to teach Balochi literature in the schools of Iranian Balochistan. Radio Zahedan broadcasts a daily Balochi language program from the capital of Sistan-va-Balochistan province, Zahedan.

Many Baloch in Iran are concerned about the strong Persian influence on Balochi, as all education takes place in Persian/Farsi.

 
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Posted by on February 13, 2011 in Balochi Language Status

 

The status of Balochi language in Pakistan

  The Constitution of Pakistan (1973), states that “any section of citizens having a disticnt language, script or culture shall have the rifht to preserve and promote the same and, subject to law, establish institutions for that purpose”, and “a Provincial Assembly may by law prescribe measures for the teaching, promotion and use of a provincial language in addition to the national language”.

In 1989, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto gave permission for the use of local languages (Balochi, Pushto, Brahui) in primary education in Balochistan, however there have been several problems associated with this program of mother-tongue education, namely: other language groups also seeking to have their language taught; the lack of teachers who are capable of implementing the program; and the fact that many parents want their children to learn Urdu and English, not a language that will be of little use outside of the immediate community. There is a Balochi Studies section at the Balochistan University in Quetta which teaches and researches the Balochi language and literature. In addition there is a Balochi Academy, also located in Quetta, which both publishes literary works in Balochi and supports the work of literary organisations. The Academy receives limited government funding. There are several Balochi language publications in Pakistan, the two most prominent being Balochi (published in the provincial capital, Quetta) and Labzank (published in Karachi).

The problems of language policy in Pakistan are described by a Baloch student:

“Go and visit all the schoosl in Lyari [an area of Karachi inhabited by many Baloch] and give a language test to the children. You will find that they cannot speak good Urdu or good English. It is due to their mother tongue. If you get education in your mother tongue, you can understand everyhthing. If you don’t, you cannot understand anything.” (Titus, 1996)

 
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Posted by on February 13, 2011 in Balochi Language Status

 
 
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