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Diagnostic study of Balochi Chappal

06 Oct

By: Tahir Malik
RC AHAN Balochistan

Disclaimer
The purpose & scope of the study is to provide cluster level information to the readers. All the material presented is based on primary/secondary data, discussions/interviews with a number of individuals concerned, directly or indirectly, to the cluster, and certain assumptions are also incorporated for the purpose. The information compiled in the document may vary considerably due to any unforeseen circumstances. Therefore, the authors make no warranty, expressed or implied; concerning the accuracy of the information presented, and will not be liable for injury claims pertaining to the use of this publication or the information contained therein.

1. Description of cluster
Small and medium enterprises of Balochi chappal play a very vital role in the economy of Balochistan as they provide employment to about 500 people of Balochistan at Prince Road Quetta only. There are many other small enterprises of Balochi Chappal in other districts of Balochistan. Nearly in every district of Balochistan, Balochi Chappal is made in a smaller quantity as compare to Quetta.
There are many Balochi Chappal producers in different areas, killis of Quetta, e.g. On Jan Mohammad Road, Pashtoon Abad, Sariab Mill, Meezan Chok and Prine Road. Price road is the only area where there are 87 small and medium enterprises of Balochi Chappal. Average employment of each enterprise is 4.

2. Introduction
Balochi Chappal is known as the cultural footwear of Baloch nation. It is made in a large quantity in Balochistan, especially in Quetta. There are more than 100 enterprises in Quetta, which make their products in their shops, where they display and sell them. Average employment of each shop is 4. All the producers are Balochs and Pashtoons, belonging to different districts of Balochistan. It is also being made in other Districts of Balochistan but Quetta is the main place of production.

3. History of Balochi Chappal
Balochi Chappal is being made since the dawn of Baloch nation in the region, which is approximately 95 years ago. The evolution of balochi chappal has come from the southern region i.e. Dera Bugti, Kuhlu, Bolan, Wadd, Khuzdar. Balochi chappal is very much popular in all over Balochistan, because it is the indigenous shoes and is in the civilization of Baloch tribes.
In past time Balochi chappal was completely made up of leather, the sole was also made with leather. Many pieces of leather were joined together and made it hard to some extent and a complete chappal was made. Even at present time, in some tribes of Balochistan such chappals are made used. Such chappal is called Kosh in Balochi. But slowly and gradually when people migrated from tribal areas to cities, they came to know that using leather pieces as sole becomes very much expensive for them, and they also found car tire to be used as the sole. Then they started using tires as the sole of Balochi chappal in place of leather pieces.

4. Geographical location
Cluster is located at Prince Road in District Quetta. Quetta is the capital city of Balochistan and is covered by mountains from four sides. This cluster operates in the middle of the city. In east, there is Liaqat Bazaar which is the main bazaar of the city, on west, there is Jinnah Road. On north, there is Masjid Road and Fathima Jinnah Road and on south, there is Government Science College Quetta.

5. Composition of Balochi Chappal
Balochi Chappal is made of Leather and Car tier. The upper part of Chappal is made of different types of leather and foam. There are many types of leather used to make the upper part i.e. cut piece leather, high kurm leather; foam etc. leather is designed in different shapes for different designs of Chappal. There are many beautiful designs of Balochi Chappal, and are differentiated by the cutting of leather part.

Sole of balochi chappal is made of car tire; both new and old tires are used in making the sole, upper part of old tire is cut and polished for the said purpose. New tire is new, it does not need polish. Old tire is used for general designs and for ordered chappal new tire is used.

There are pieces of tire available for making soles. A piece of *foam is fixed on the tire to make it soft. No any kind of electronic machinery is used for make this unique chappal.

6. Types of Chappal
There are two main designs of balochi chappal.
They are as under:
􀂾 Balochi
􀂾 Shikari

Balochi chappal is mostly used by typical Balochs in cities and other tribal areas of
Balochistan. It has further many types.

Types of Balochi Chappal:
􀂾 Marri cut
􀂾 Jhalawan cut
􀂾 Mangal cut
􀂾 Bugti cut
􀂾 Sada Balochi

These names are given by the artisans them selves, these are all the names of tribes in Balochistan, and one, which is used mostly in a particular tribe, its name is give to that chappal. These types of Chappal are used in all over Balochistan.

Types of Shikari ChappalShikari Chappal is used by Pashtoon. It has further three types
􀂾 shikari
􀂾 Sada shikari
􀂾 Norozi

Balochi chappal is completely hand made, there is no use of any electronic machinery, only in some designs of Shikari and Balochi chappals, sewing machine is used for designing, but all the other designs and fitting is done by hand operated tools.

7. Tools
􀂾 Drashp, (for cutting)
􀂾 Kundi, (for making hols & sewing the sole)
􀂾 Rambi (for cutting purpose)
􀂾 Zamboor, (nail remover)
􀂾 Farma, (mould)
􀂾 Khat kash, (Liner)
􀂾 Plas
􀂾 Scissor
􀂾 Hammer
These hand operated tools are used in making chappal.

8. Raw material
Raw materials used in making Balochi Chappal are as under
• Leather,
• Foam, (type of leather)
• Car tire,
• Solution/glue,
• Thread,
• Nail
• Zip
• Aster
(a thick piece of soft leather placed on the top of sole to make it soft)
There are many varieties in leather, some are available in Quetta and some are not. Entrepreneurs usually travel to Karachi, Lahore and interior Punjab for the purpose. This thing increases the cost of chappal. Local vendors say that leather, which is not available here, is costly and is not used in all designs, if we bring it in Quetta, entrepreneurs may not afford the cost.
According to the entrepreneurs, they bring leather stock for 6 to 12 months, which covers their travel expenses from Quetta to other cities for the purpose. Leather is the most prominent and expensive part of chappal which differentiates in designs.

9. Types of leather
Many types of leather are used in making Balochi Chappal, i.e.
􀂾 High kurm leather
􀂾 Cut piece leather
􀂾 *Foam
􀂾 Sabir (type of leather)
􀂾 *Aster

*Aster is also a type of leather which is used in Balochi chappal. It is fixed on the sole (tire) to make it soft so that it should not heart the foot. Tire is too hard to put on, that’s why a piece of aster is fixed of it by sticking solution.
Car tire is used for the sole of Balochi chappal. As it is being used to walk on the mountainous areas from the beginning, that’s why car tire was used as the sole for it,
tire is too hard and does not finish by fraction for a long time. In past, people did not have much money to buy shoes and they needed something hard which could go for a long time, except tire, there was no any other alternative which could be used for the sole of their chappal. Drashp is used to cut the tire.
Sole and the upper part of chappal are fixed by sewing with hand operated tools. kundi is used for sewing chappal.
Leather is cut in a way that some parts of leather are passed from that holes of the sole
and is fixed there.

10. Manufacturing process
The beginning of Balochi Chappal starts from cutting the leather according to the size of required number, after cutting designs are made on it, (Sizes of each number of feet are already made on a piece of hard paper). Leather is put on that paper and cut according to that. After cutting the leather, sole is cut according to the required size.
*Aster is fixed on the hard tire sole to make it soft. Holes are made in the sole with an instrument (zamboor) and leather parts are dragged from those holes to fix leather with the sole. When they finished with that, a chappal shaped wooden piece (Farma) is fixed in that to make it hard so that they could easily fix its designs, when the incomplete chappal is fixed in Farma, now leather is cut in different designs to fix them on the chappal and a complete chappal is made.

Cut leather
Make designs on leather
Fix leather with sole

Cut tire for sole
Cut Aster
Fix Aster with sole
Fix leather with sole

Fix leather with sole
Assemble & hand stitch
Polishing & finishing
End consumers

11. Explanation of process
Balochi chappal making is very tough job. It needs too much time and hard work. There are some designs which even take 2 to 3 days in completion, due to leather cut designs on them. But a simple chappal can be made in one day by a single worker.
There are two phases of balochi chappal making. In first phase, the upper part of chappal is made and in second phase, sole is made.
Upper part of chappal is completely leather made, leather is cut in the required size
and designs are made on it.
A piece of car tire is taken as the sole, as the car tire is too hard to wear so a piece of *Aster is fixed on tire to make it soft. When sole and upper part are completed then these two parts are fixed together by some hole in the sole. This unfinished chappal is put in the Farma (wooden mould) to fix the leather cut designs on the upper part.
By this way a complete chappal is made and displayed in the outlet for sale.

12. Current output
There are 100 enterprises of Balochi Chappal in the cluster, and average employment of each enterprise is 5. Usually each worker can make 2-5 pairs in a full working day, but the duration of making of a Balochi Chappal depends upon the design, size and the season. Balochi chappal is a seasonal product that’s why the quantity of its manufacturing differs from season to season. Its market rises in summer and decreases in winter. In this way the entrepreneurs also change the quantity of production in different seasons.
But generally, monthly production of each enterprise is 300. In this way the monthly production of the cluster is 6000 pairs.
But this quantity changes with the change in seasons.

Cost breakdown

cost of raw material 65%
cost of labor 16.667%
Travel cost 8.334%
Other misc. 1.667%
Electricity 8.334%
Total 100%

13. Market
Mostly these entrepreneurs rely on direct sale to the end users at their outlets at prince road. Even Balochi Chappal has a great demand in the national and international market, but because of lack of knowledge about the markets and no access to these markets, these entrepreneurs can not take their products to big markets of the country.
Pricing of the chappal is made on fixed profit margin Their products are also taken to other countries by personal relations, which are very much liked by the people of those countries, and earn a great profit from there. But this thing does not give any extra benefit to the entrepreneurs, because these entrepreneurs do not export their items, but they just sell them at the current market price. Extra profit goes to the person who takes them to other countries. According to them, this cultural Chappal has a great demand and market in other countries.
The average sale of these entrepreneurs is 7 pairs/day. Prices of Balochi Chappal start from Rs.300 to Rs.700, because of the expensive and unavailable raw material in Quetta.
These entrepreneurs also make Chappal on order which costs upto Rs.1500. the cost of ordered chappal is high because of the selected design and material of the customers, they make the chappal according to the wish of the customer.

14. Finance
Finance system of this cluster is very weak; there is no concept of book keeping in these enterprises. It is all because the illiteracy of the entrepreneurs. Mostly they are uneducated that’s why they are not able enough to keep the records of their daily transactions. Only few of them keep records i.e. Pazwar, master cappal makers, Noorozi chappal makers etc.
They use the credit terms min. 10 days and max. 30 days. Them main problem in this area is that the suppliers are not willing to provide finance.
These suppliers do not sell their products on credit to the customers from other areas who want to buy on a large quantity because they are afraid of loosing their money.

15. Problems identified
The most common problems faced by these enterprises are as under:

Supply End:
􀂾 Raw matrial is expensive and some types of leather are not available in quetta, they have to travel to Karachi, Lahore and interior Punjab and sindh for the purpose.
􀂾 They need training in designing and product development

Manufacturing:
􀂾 Hand operated tools are problem for them in the production process.
􀂾 Their shops are very much close to the road and are open. All the dust and smoke of vehicles inter directly into their shops which cause many diseases in\ them. i.g. asthma, chest pain, cough etc.

Marketing:
􀂾 No proper market / distribution channel through which they could distribute their products into domestic and international markets
􀂾 They have no resources to develop marketing material, i.e. Brouchers, website, adds in print and electronic media, for the publicity of their products

16. Working conditions
Working conditions are not that much bad. If a local person visits the cluster and observes the working conditions then they are good, the chappal makers are sitting on the floor, working in an open shop having fresh air, in the main bazaar. In some shops, a small piece of wooden table is there in front of the designer where he cuts leather in different shapes and rest of the workers have a piece of huge stone. And in most of other shops, this wooden table is not available; they use the piece of stone as their table and to sharpen their cutting instruments.
But when some one from a factory visits the cluster and observes the working conditions then it will be very painful for him, because he knows the facilities provided for performing different works, and these workers are setting on floor, absorbing polluted air and the disadvantage of such work is, the effect on the backbone of the workers. They set to work from early morning till evening; this thing has a very dangerous affect on the health of the workers. Nearly all the workers complain pain in their backbones after finishing their work.
Fear of cutting their hands by sharp hand used instruments is always there. Their shops are very much close to the road due to which all the dust, spread by the cars, goes directly into the shops and they inhale it. This thing causes many diseases for them. They think that they are sitting in a free area with fresh air but their air is fully polluted with dust and smoke of the cars.
Lighting arrangements are not problems for them because they work only in day time so they do not need extra arrangement for that.

17. SWOT analysis
􀂙 Strengths
􀀹 Quality products
􀀹 Skilled labor
􀀹 Cultural / ancient crafts
􀀹 High consumption in domestic market
􀀹 Large number of producers
􀀹 High quantity of monthly production
􀀹 Hard working workers, spend most of time at their shops
􀀹 Can compete with other shoes companies

􀂙 Weaknesses􀀹 Illiteracy
􀀹 Conservative/tribal community
􀀹 Lack of trust with each other
􀀹 Inconsistency in pricing
􀀹 Low capacity of investment
􀀹 Non availability of raw material
􀀹 Low level of modernization and up gradation of products
􀀹 Have no unions
􀀹 Have no recognized brand name i.e. Bata, Service etc

􀂙 Opportunities
􀀹 Demand of traditional designs
􀀹 Utilization of product as culture
􀀹 Scope in national and international markets

􀂙 Threats
􀀹 Modern / contemporary designs
􀀹 Duplication of their products in low quality and low rate
􀀹 Slow improvement in quality

18. Strategies
Following strategies can be adopted by the government and non government organizations for the betterment of the cluster.
􀂾 Managerial and accounting training for accurate record keeping to minimize risk of loosing products
􀂾 Awareness training to overcome internal grievance
􀂾 Encourage entrepreneurs to invest more in business for greater profit
􀂾 Provision of raw material within the cluster (Quetta), encourage local vendors to provide quality raw material in affordable prize
􀂾 Training of modern designs and awareness training about modern market demand
􀂾 Make registered association for their legal rights
􀂾 Develop linkages with domestic, national and international markets
􀂾 Prepare marketing material to promote sale of this ancient craft
􀂾 Marketing and product development training
􀂾 Provide Micro credit to the entrepreneurs so that they could run their business Smoothly

19. Vision
• Increase sale by developing market linkages. (Please quantify the vision and also include time frame e.g. 3 years or 5 years)
• Modify existing products into modern designs and patterns by designing and Product developing training.
• Confirm availability of raw material within the cluster in affordable prize
• Developing a marketing strategy to increase the sale of Balochi Chappal in Balochistan as well as in National and International Markets

20. Mission
To modify the existing product according to the modern market demand so that the sale of Balochi Chappal increase and these entrepreneurs could get some profit.
Sale of Balochi Chappal can be increased by providing quality raw material in affordable cost, modify the existing chappal according to the need of modern market.
There is no union or team work among these entrepreneurs due to which their production and pricing is being disturbed. We aim to make a registered association which will tackle their legal issues in future.

21. Expected result
􀂙 End users
People who wish to wear balochi chappal but can afford its cost, will be able to buy it, by this way the sale will also increase accordingly.
􀂙 Entrepreneurs
When they get raw material within the cluster, the production cost of cappal will automatically decrease which will increase the sale of their products.
􀂙 Managerial and accounting trainings will make them able to keep proper record of their sale. They will be able to sell their products on credit to the customers from other cities
􀂙 Whole seller
Whole sellers will take balochi chappal to other districts which will increase the sale of these entrepreneurs

Action plan for Proposed Association for 2 year

First 8 months• Product Development
􀂃 Mobilization for group/team work
􀂃 Union / Association formation and registration
􀂃 Introduction of modern market taste and demand
􀂃 Research and information about quality Raw Material
􀂃 Managerial and Accounting trainings

Second 8 months• Sample production
􀂃 Product Development Training
􀂃 Marketing training
􀂃 Designing training
􀂃 Quality sample production
􀂃 Searching for markets for quality raw material
􀂃 Contact with raw material dealers in other cities for raw material

Third 8 months
• Marketing and publicity
􀂃 Preparation of Marketing material (printing brouchers, making
Website, ads in print and electronic media)
􀂃 Searching for reasonable Local, National and International
markets
􀂃 Linkage development with Local, National and International
markets

* Foam is a type of leather which is comparatively softer then the other types of leather

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Posted by on October 6, 2011 in Baloch Culture

 

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