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Code-Copying in the Balochi Language of Sistan

08 May

By: Lutz Rzehak
Berlin Humboldt University, Germany

Abstract

This empirical study deals with language contact phenomena in Sistan. Codecopying is viewed as a strategy of linguistic behavior when a dominated language acquires new elements in lexicon, phonology, morphology, syntax, pragmatic organization, etc., which can be interpreted as copies of a dominating language. In this framework Persian is regarded as the model code which provides elements for being copied into Balochi as the basic code. It is argued here that code-copying affects most readily the lexicon, whereas more structured subsystems like morphology and syntax hardly admit to copying.
Instead lexical copies serve as an intermediary for copying phonic and morphological-syntactical features of the model code. Copies of the Persian model code which become established linguistic features of Balochi are distinguished from ephemeral linguistic switches which are studied within the context of communication situation variables and other linguistic or extra linguistic factors. The study is based upon audio recordings of colloquial Balochi speech made by the author in Sistan during the last six years.

Introduction

In multilingual societies a structural functional distribution of the languages or varieties involved can be observed. In Sistan the schools, media, administration, etc., are dominated by Persian. Balochi is limited to being used exclusively as a spoken language within the speech community. The weight of pressure falls in line with the importance the linguistic domains of Persian hold within the community. Asymmetric settings of that kind encompass several linguistic phenomena including intensive code-copying. The dominated language may acquire new elements in lexicon, in phonology, morphology, syntax, pragmatic organization, etc., which can be interpreted as copies of the dominating language. Copies from Persian shape the Balochi language decisively and Persian can be regarded the most important model code for Balochi speakers in the wider region of Sistan. Especially in the northern parts of Sistan both standard Persian of Iran and standard Persian of Afghanistan (Dari) may provide model codes.
Balochi has been studied in a contact linguistic perspective before, and most attention was paid to elements of grammatical structure1. The object of this empirical study is parole rather than langue and code-copying is viewed as a strategy of linguistic behavior. Instead of metaphors like “borrowing”, “import”or “transfer”, I use the framework of “code-copying” as developed and proposed by Lars Johanson: “The central concept of the framework is that copies of lexical, phonic or grammatical elements of a Model Code are inserted into clauses of a Basic Code. Copies can be more or less habitualized and conventionalized, thus ranging from ephemeral insertional switches to established linguistic changes” (Johanson 2002: 262).
This paper is aimed to analyze how code-copying works in modern Balochi of Sistan2. I will show that code-copying affects most readily the lexicon being 1 For Iranian Balochi see Jahani (1994), Jahani (1999), Jahani (2003), Baranzehi (2003), Mahmoodi Bakhtiari (2003), Mahmoodzahi (2003). Some features of the Balochi language of Afghanistan were studied in a contact linguistic perspective by Rzehak (2003). Some notes on the iẓāfa -construction in various Balochi dialects were made by Buddruss (1988: 49), Spooner (1967: 57) and Elfenbein (1989: 357). 2 The sociolinguistic impact of code-copying cannot be discussed here. The role of code-copying in language endangerment is discussed by Johanson (2002), Brenzinger (1997), and Craig (1997).
an unstructured repository of lexical items3. Persian “loanwords” in Balochi are evident, but copying of lexical elements serves as an intermediary for the copying of other elements as well. Phonic and even some grammatical features of modern Persian are copied, i.e. imitated and adapted to Balochi, being conveyed and channeled by lexical copies. Only in rare cases more structured subsystems like morphology and syntax admit to copying as well.I take my material from audio-recordings which I made in Sistan between 2002 and 2008. These recordings include texts about everyday life which were created for my study purposes especially, as well as habitual conversations between (male) Balochi speakers. The spectrum of informants ranges from illiterate persons up to speakers who are well acquainted with the writing tradition of Persian. All informants are bilingual, and for all of them Balochi is the language which they learned first, the primary language or the “mother tongue”, the language of the home. Persian was acquired as a second system through schooling, mass media or communication outside of the home. No written uses of Balochi exist, except for some dialect poetry. Literature is all in Persian.
The language examples given below demonstrate an emerging trend in the linguistic behavior of Balochi speakers in Sistan. These examples are representative not statistically, but for the reason that they go with an evident trend. Besides short sequences of free speech which are embedded in the text, a longer narration about wedding traditions is given at the end of this paper for a better demonstration of code-copying. For cross references to this narration the number of the corresponding paragraph is added in brackets.

1.Lexical Copies

In habitual communication it is primarily denotations of technical innovations which are copied from Persian without noteworthy phonic or grammatical 3 See King (2000) for a discussion of structural attempts to explain why lexical aspects of a language might be more affected by linguistic contact than others. adaptation, e.g. gūš’ī 4 ‘cell phone’, māš’īn ‘car’, yaxč’āl ‘refrigerator’, telewīzy’ōn ‘TV’, kūndīzy’ōn ‘air conditioner’, fīlmbardār’ī ‘film shooting’, dūrb’īn camera’etc5. The Baloch in Sistan do not create neologisms for the denotation of technical innovations. On the contrary, some traditional Balochi denotations are given up and copies of Persian lexemes are used instead. For instance, since the distant past Baloch nomads produced a drink made of buttermilk and water which was called sut traditionally. Nowadays most Baloch have given up the nomadic way of life and they don’t produce sut anymore. They buy the industrially-produced drink at the bazaar where it is sold under the Persian name dūġ . Today the same word is used instead of sut by most urban Baloch.
As long as Baloch nomads knotted carpets they called them čērg’ēǧ . Modern Baloch who do not produce carpets but buy them at the bazaar prefer the Persian name farš. The fondness for Persian lexemes falls in line with fundamental changes in the Balochi way of life in the past few decades. In the sample narration one can find numerous lexical copies of Persian nouns used instead of traditional Balochi lexemes due to a changed way of life which is more and more dominated by Persian terms, e.g. xānawād’a / xānewād’a (instead of xānaw’ār , kah’ōl ) ‘family’, ‘relatives’ (1, 2, 3, 6, 25 et al.), ezdew’āǧ (instead of gis-u ār’ōs ) ‘marriage’ (1), xāstagār’ī (instead of kāsid’ī ) ‘courtship’, ‘wooing’
(2, 7), šīrbah’ā (instead of šīrbēl’ī ) ‘gift to a bride’s mother (for having nursed her)’
(4), pūl (instead of zar , pays’ag ) ‘money’
(5), šīrīnīxor’ī (instead of waššīxor’ī )‘engagement’, ‘betrothal’ (7), leb’ās (instead of pučč ) ‘clothing’ (12, 17), nah’ār(instead of nān ) ‘lunch’ (17, 21). Copies of Persian nouns are widely used ascomponents of compound verbs mostly with kurt’in / kan’ag as the light verb. In the sample narration the following examples can be cited: pard’āxt ‘payment’ in bāy’ad pard’āxt kant ‘[he] has to pay’ (5), ezdew’āǧ ‘marriage’ in lōṭ’īt … 4 Dynamic word stress is marked by’ before the stressed vowel in polysyllabic words.
5 Some of these lexemes are used in the sample narration (6, 17). ezdew’āǧ kant ‘[who] wants … to marry’ (1), fīlmbardār’ī ‘film shooting’ in mūd būt’a … fīlmbardār’ī-a kanant ‘it has come into fashion … to shoot a film’ (17). Adjectives which are copied from Persian model codes can be used both as attribute and as predicate. When used as attribute the Balochi ending -ēn is added, e.g. xast’a ‘exhausted’ and xatarn’āk ‘dangerous’, ‘thrilling’ in the following sequences:
[1] ēš am xast’a int bēčār’a xulās’a gis’ay payd’ā kurt’a – ‘He was so exhausted, this poor man; well he found the house.’
[2] ē bāz xatarn’ākēn film int – ‘This is a very thrilling film.’
Lexical copies of Persian model codes are numerous in Balochi, but their usage can still be regarded as differing from some standard pattern. A widespread strategy of linguistic self-correction is lexical doubling when a speaker uses both the lexical copy of a Persian model code and the original Balochi lexeme with the same meaning one after another. In the following sample sequences this applies to ann’ūn (Bal.) and fēl’an (< Pers.) ‘now’ and to izdiw’āǧ kū (< Pers.) and gis kū (Bal.) ‘[he] married’:
[3] senf-e duwāzd’a ham al’ās k’urtun-u ann’ūn fēl’an n’ištun bēk’ār-un – ‘I finished the 12th class, and now I am sitting here, I am jobless.’
[4] ā gēštir ‘kī bi kišāwarz’īā ann’ūn ki fēl’an xušksāl’ī int-u ēč ēč k’ārēa n’akanant bīk’ār n’ištant – ‘They [are] mostly in agriculture, but now there is a drought and they are not working at all, they are sitting jobless.’
[5] bād’an ē mard’ak āt-u ham’idā masal’an kār-u bār kurt-u izdiw’āǧ ku gis ku – ‘Then this man came here, did some business and married.’

2. Phonic Copies

In modern Balochi of Sistan Persian phonemes appear in lexical units which were copied from Persian recently and in some lexical units which traditionally belong to the common lexicon of Persian and Balochi. In words which had been copied from or via Persian a long time ago, unknown or at least uncommon phonemes traditionally were adapted to the phonic habits of Balochi. Today such lexemes of the common lexicon can be pronounced by following the Persian model code if a word is associated with those fields of communication which are regarded as the linguistic domain of Persian rather than of Balochi within the structural functional distribution of languages.

1.1Consonants

Originally the local dialect of Balochi did not have the uvular plosive /q/; words with an etymological /q/ were adapted to the linguistic habits of Balochi by pronouncing /k/ or (seldom) /x/ instead, cf. kawm (< qawm ) ‘tribe’, ‘clan’, kudr’at (< qudr’at ) ‘power’, ‘strength’, waxt / wakt (< waqt ) ‘time’. Today one can hear the uvular plosive /q/ as well, but not in all corresponding words. In the following sequence /q/ is pronounced only in the word qudr’at and its derivatives, but not in kawm . [6] ham’ē say kawm xūb ant pa qudr’atā-u dig’ar kawm ant kawm ant zabr’ēn ṭūy’ēn qudratm’andēn kawm ant – ‘These three tribes are good with regard to power, and there are other tribes, good and big tribes; there are powerful tribes.’ Obviously, in words which are common to Balochi and Persian, /k/ is preserved in words like kawm which are regarded as genuine Balochi words; kawm describes a central unit in the social structure of the Baloch. The pronunciation with the etymological allophone /q/ is preferred in words which are more or less intensively associated with the linguistic domain of Persian and which can be regarded as lexical copies of a Persian model code. The same applies to raf’īq ‘friend’ in the sample narration (15). In the colloquial standard of Iran the uvular plosive /q/ is mostly replaced by the fricative /ġ/. In today’s linguistic behavior of Balochi speakers this way of pronunciation can also be found; but /ġ/ is pronounced particularly in such lexical items which were copied as complete lexical units from a Persian model code or which are associated with the linguistic domain of Persian rather than of Balochi. In the following sequences such lexical items are ġad’īmā ‘formerly’, mantaġ’a ‘region’, taġrīb’an ‘approximately’, mawġi’a ‘occasion’, ‘time’, and mulāġ’āt ‘meeting’. The original phonic adaptation of etymological /q/ to the linguistic habits of Balochi by pronouncing /k/ has also been preserved in kawm‘tribe’, ‘clan’: [7] ġadīm’ā masal’an ki būt’a id’ā ‘ātan bi kang’ā b’ūtan amm’ay ǧā mantaġ’a amm’ay kang int – ‘Formerly we came here, we were in Kang. Our place, our homeland is Kang.’ [8] man taġrīb’an ša w’axt-ē ki man šut’a-un bi makt’abā zānt’a-un čī kawmun – ‘Approximately from the time when I went to school I knew which tribe I belonged to.’ [9] zindag’ī pēšraft’a n’awat ā mawġi’a – ‘Life was not progressive at that time.’ [10] man āt ‘a-un čē am ‘ē wāt ‘ī ǧin ‘ikkayā ki wat ‘ī ǧin ‘ikkā mulāġ ‘āt kan ‘īn-u bg ‘indīn-ī – ‘I came to, to my daughter’s place, to meet my daughter and to see her.’In the sample narration lexical copies of Persian model codes with an unmodified pronunciation of /ġ/ are: mowġ’e ‘occasion’ (5, 25), aġd ‘engagement’, ‘wedding’ (9, 10, 18, 19), tawāf’oġ ‘agreement’ (8, 10, 25), tebġ-e ‘according to’ (9), āġ’ā ‘Mister’ (13), mantaġ’a ‘region’ (19), taġrīb’an ‘approximately’ (24). In the Balochi dialect of Sistan initial /h/ is instable, cf. (h)am ‘also’, (h)ar ‘every’, (h)aft ‘seven’6. However, in certain situations initial /h/ is pronounced regularly following the Iranian Persian model code. This happens particularly with year specifications which are associated rather with the linguistic domain of Persian than of Balochi. A case in point is the repeated articulation of initial /h/ in haft ‘seven’ in the following sequence: [11] man sāl-e az’ār-u sē sad-u panǧ’āh-u haft-e mīlād’ī mīlād’īay bīt yā īr’ānay mīlād’īā payd’ā būt’a-un māh-e dah-e yek-e panǧ’āh-u haft yān’ī 6 Cf. Buddruss (1989: 44). bahm’an-māh-e panǧ’āh-u če panǧ’āh-u h’aftā payd’ā būt’a-un – ‘I was born in the Gregorian year 1357. Shall I say the Gregorian [year] or the Iranian? In [1357] of the Gregorian calendar, on the 1st of the tenth month of [13] 57, i.e. in the month of Bahman of fifty-, fifty seven I was born.’ 7 The numerals (h)aft ‘seven’ as well as (h)ašt ‘eight’ are often pronounced without initial /h/ as aft and ašt when used not for year specification but in another context, for instance, when describing a period of time: [12] yak šaš aft sāl dars w’āntan – ‘Six or seven years I went to school.’8 [13] aft māh ašt māh dēm’ā būta ašt māh dēm’ā – ‘[This] was seven or eight months ago, eight months ago.’ In the sample narration a distinguished pronunciation of initial /h/ can be interpreted as copy of a Persian lexical model code in hamdīg’ar ‘each other’ (5), ham’ā ‘this’ (16, 17), and ham’ām ‘bath’ (17).

1.2 Diphthongs

Originally, Balochi had only two diphthongs: /aw/ and /ay/; cf. kawm “tribe”, kay “who”.9 In presentday Iranian Persian historical /aw/ has been transformed into /ow/ (or even /ō/) and /ay/ into /ey/. Correspondingly, today in Balochi along with /aw/ and /ay/ one can hear the Iranian Persian pronunciation /ey/ and /ow/ in lexemes which have been copied from Persian like xeylī ‘very’ and mowġe ‘occasion’, ‘time’ in the following sample sequences. The original Balochi pronunciation /aw/ and /ay/ is preserved in am’ē rāz’ay ‘such’ and awg’ān ‘Pashtun’. 7 The speaker, obviously, confused the calendar systems with each other. Besides that, Bahman is the 11th month of the Iranian solar year. 8 The 1st person plural ending in w’āntan can be explained as pluralis modestiae . 9 Cf. Buddruss (1988: 49).[14] bāz bi pākist’ānā balōčist’ānā x’eylī kam ast ē rāz’ay ki trā guš’ant čī kaum’ī int – ‘But in Pakistan, in Balochistan it is very seldom [that way] that they tell you which tribe one belongs to.’[15] yak mowġ’eī yak bal’ōčē watī ǧin’ikkā dāt bi awg’ānēā – ‘Once a Baloch married his daughter to a Pashtun.’ In the sample text the pronunication /ow/ of a Persian model code waspreserved in mowġ’e ‘occasion’, ‘time’ (5, 25) and in mowlaw’ī ‘Mullah’ (9).

1.3 Vowels

In traditional Balochi three short vowels can be distinguished: /a/, /i/ and /u/. In modern Persian the corresponding short vowels are pronounced as /a/, /e/ and /o/. Today some speakers of Balochi follow the Persian model code precisely, at least in particular cases, by pronouncing /e/ and /o/, although the opposition between /e/ and /i/ or between /o/ and /u/ has no phonemic relevance in Balochi.
The Persian vowels /e/ and /o/ are preferred as allophones of /i/ and /u/ in words or expressions which are associated rather with the linguistic domain of Persian than of Balochi. In the sample text numerous examples can be found both for the articulation of /e/, cf. extel’āf ‘dispute’ (5), ǧehziy’e (< ǧehīziy’e ) ‘dowry’ (6), wasā’el ‘means’ (6), telewizy’ōn ‘TV set’ (6), marās’em ‘ceremony’ (8, 29), leb’ās (12, 17), es’āb (< hes’āb ) ‘account’, ‘reckoning’, esl’ā (< esl’āh )‘correction’ (17), xānewād’a ‘family’ (25), and of /o/, cf. sonn’at ‘tradition’ (9), koll ‘all’ (15, 24). The Persian ezāfe is also pronounced as /e/ rather than as /i/. Iranian Persian has given up the long vowels /ō/ (wāw-e maǧhūl ) and /ē/ (yāye maǧhūl ); /ū/ and /ī/ are pronounced instead. Some Balochi speakers follow this tendency occasionally by articulating /ū/ instead of /ō/ in words which belong to the common lexicon of Persian and Balochi. As a case in point the Balochi lexeme pōst ‘skin’ can be pronounced as pūst when it occurs in a compound word like siyāhp’ūst ‘black-skinned’ which was copied as a lexical unit from Persian.
[16] siyāhp’ūstānī dīn-u amm’ay dīn isl’ām int –The belief of the blackskinned and our belief is Islam.’ In the sample narration lexemes of the common lexicon in which /ū/ was pronounced instead of traditional /ō/ by following the Persian model code are arūs’ī ‘wedding’ (11, 13, 15, 23, and 29), dūst ‘friend’ (15), gūšt ‘meat’ (17). Some speakers of Balochi pronounce long /ī/ instead of etymological /ē/ in constructions with yā-ye ešāre like kas-ī ke ‘the person who’, or in constructions with yā-ye wahdat like yak-ī ‘one [of them]’. In these cases all the constructions with yā-ye ešāre or yā-ye wahdat must be regarded as copies of a Persian model code which were generated without further phonic modification. Examples in the sample narration are čīz-ī ke ‘a thing which’ (5), pūl-ī ke ‘the money which’ (6), yek-ī ‘one [of them]’ (4), and har mowġ’e-ī ke ‘whenever’ (5). The lexeme mowġ’e ‘occasion’, ‘time’ is a buzzword in modern Balochi of Sistan, and the pronunciation of long /ī/ in constructions like mowġ’e-ī ke ‘when’ or har mowġ’e-ī ke ‘whenever’ can be regarded as an established language switch. However, in lexical items which belong to the common lexicon of Persian and Balochi not all phonic features of a Persian model code must necessarily be copied in the Balochi basic code. In corresponding words the phonetic systems of Persian and Balochi are often mixed. In the following sequences the pronunciation ġayč’īn ‘scissors’ and awġānist’ān ‘Afghanistan’ follows the Persian model codes ġeyč’ī and afġānest’ān by articulating /ġ /, but the original Balochi pronunciation /ay/ and /aw/ and the Balochi short vowel /i/ were preserved10. [17] māld’ār n’awant gōk-u pas n’adārant-u šamš’ēr ǧōṛ-a kan’ant kārd ǧōṛ-a kan’ant ġayč’īn ǧōṛ-a11 am’ē rāz’ay čīz ǧōṛ-a kan’ant – ‘[They] are no herdsmen, they have no cows or sheep, they make swords, knives and scissors, they make such things.’ 10 Cf. mawġi’a with a combined pronunciation of /ġ / and /aw/ in sample sequence [4]. 11 The flow of words was disrupted here. [18] senf-e yāzd’a al’ās k’urtun īr’ānay tā bād šā’ī āt’a-un awġānist’ānā – ‘I finished the 11th class in Iran, after that I went to Afghanistan.’ Similarly, in xānewād’a ‘family’ as pronounced in the sample narration (25) the Persian final /e/ (hā-ye ġeyr-e malfūz ) was copied precisely in the first component of this compound (xāne ) whereas in the second component (wāda ) the pronunciation of hā-ye ġeyr-e malfūz was adapted to the linguistic habits of Balochi and articulated as /a/. Such irregularities demonstrate that phonic copies of a Persian model code are ephemeral insertional switches rather than established speech patterns.

3. Morphological-Syntactical Copies

In the sample narration the Persian plural ending -hā was used in b’āzē mouġeh’ā‘sometimes’ (25). It is evident that this phrase was copied from Persian en bloc. As far as my material shows in modern Balochi the Persian plural ending – hā is never used in a productive way for creating plural forms.The same applies to other morphological and syntactical features of colloquial Balochi which can be interpreted as copies of a Persian model code. Only a few of them are used in a productive way.

3.1 Prepositions

In colloquial speech one often can hear Persian prepositions like bā ‘with’ or dar ‘in’. However, when used in Balochi they are not productive as prepositions, but copied within more complex lexical units. The Persian preposition bā can be used as part of the collocations bā ham ‘together’ or bā wasl ‘with connections’, but it is not used as a direct replacement of the Balochi preposition gō(n) ‘with’: [19] šaš aft brās-an amm’ā y’akǧā bā ham zindag’ī-a kanan – ‘We are six, seven brothers, we live together.’ [20] mard’um rū bi kār b’ūtant-u ē mard’um-ē ki bā wasl at-u ġar’īb at-u č’īz-ē n’adāšt ēš ham ‘ātant ham’idā ǧā g’iptant-u xulās’a xūb zindag’ī-iš pak’aš būt – ‘People turned to the work; and those people who had connections and [those who] were poor, who had nothing, they also came here, took their place. Anyway, well, life was good. In the latter sequence the preposition bi must also be regarded as a copy of the Persian preposition be ‘to’ which was reproduced with slight phonic modification (/e/ > /i/) within the lexical unit rū be/bi kār ‘turning to the work.Similarly the Persian preposition dar can be copied within complex lexical units such as nesf dar nesf , nīm dar nīm [both:] ‘half and half’ or dar hāl-e ‘in the state of’. Outside of such units constructions with the meaning ‘in’ aregenerated the traditional way as with the postposition tā :[21] muhāǧ’ir dig’a ē rāz guš’īn ki nesf dar nesf nīm dar nīm muhāǧ’ir būtant īr’ānay tā-u pākist’ānay tā –Migrants, I would say that half and half became migrants in Iran and Pakistan.’ [22] lūṛ’ī ant dig’a amīš’a dar hāl-e kūč ant –‘The Luri are, they are always in the state of wandering.’Similarly in the sample narration the Persian preposition dar was used within the phrase dar zamān-e pīr’ī ‘at the old age’ (27) which was also copied from Persian en bloc. In Balochi only some compound prepositions which are generated by copying a Persian model code can really be used as prepositions, but some lexical adaptation is necessary. Thus the lexemes az and be of the Persian model code be ġeyr az ‘without’ are replaced by their Balochi equivalents ša and pa when the compound preposition pa ġeyr ša is generated in Balochi. As a whole it can be regarded as a copy of the Persian model code and it is used instead of traditional constructions meaning ‘without’ such as čap ša . The Persian model code bedūn az with the same meaning can be copied in a very similar way by replacing az by ša . The fact that pa ġeyr ša and bidūn ša are used as prepositions in a productive way reveals itself by the usage of the prepositional case ending -ā with āp ‘water’ and kišāwarz’ī ‘agriculture’ in the following sequences:m [23] ē rāz at ki mard’umānī zindag’i kull’an gō āp’ā at pa ġayr ša bidūn ša āp’ā ābād’ī-a n’abīt gō āp’ā ābād’ī-a bīt – ‘It was that way that the life of the people depended upon water completely. Without water there is no prosperity. With water there is prosperity.’ [24] pa ġayr ša kišāwarz’īā am dig’ar k’ār-ē nēst – ‘Except for agriculture there is no other work.’ A copy of the Persian compound preposition baʿd az ‘after’ can be generated similarly by replacing az by ša and by a slight phonic adaptation (baʿd> bād ); the copy bād ša ‘after’ also requires the prepositional case as in ēš-‘ān in the following sequence: [25] gēšt’irēn bal’ōčānā nīmr’ūzī welāy’atay tā tāyip’a-e šīrz’ī ant tašk’īl-a day’ant bād ša ēš’ān gōrg’ēǧ ham h’astant wa raxšān’ī ham h’astant – ‘The majority of the Baloch in the province of Nimroz holds the tribe of the Shirzi; after them there are also Gurgej and Rakhshani.’ In the sample narration the prepositional case is used in combination with bād ša in bād ša ezdew’āǧā ‘after the marriage’ (5), bād ša say rōč’ā ‘after three days’ (20). More probably than not in all these compound prepositions it is the final position of the Balochi preposition ša ‘from’ which provokes the prepositional case. By contrast, the prepositional case does not appear after copies of compound prepositions with final ezāfe such as ša nazar-e ‘regarding’ which can be interpreted as a copy of the Persian construction az nazar-e : [26] ē pa mard’umānī dēm’ā ša nazar-e aqīd’a yak šaxs-e mazhabī-u buzurgw’ār-ē at – ‘With regard to belief he was a godly and great person for the people.’ In the sample narration similar copies of Persian compound prepositions with final ezāfe are tāt-e (< taht-e ) ‘under’ (1) and tebġ-e ‘according to’ (9). No prepositional case appears after them.

3.2 The ezāfe-construction

Collocations with ezāfe are numerous in the modern Balochi language of Sistan. However in most cases the ezāfe is copied as an element of more complex lexical units such as in the sample narration belfarz-e mes’āl ‘for example’ (2, 15), wābastag’ī-e xānawādag’ī ‘family ties’ (25), kārt-e daʿw’at ‘invitation card’ (15), or marās’em-e arūs’ī ‘marriage ceremony’ (15, 23, 29). Collocations with ezāfe which are copied into Balochi without further modification are usually fixed terms. Some of them contain numerical data such as senf-e yāzd’a ‘the 11th class’, others are names of languages such as fārs’ī-e īr’ān ‘the Persian language of Iran’ or names of person groups such as ahl-e tasann’un ‘Sunnites’.
[27] dig’a taġrīb’an tā senf-e yāzd’aā dars wānt’a-un –’Then I went to school approximately till the 11th class.’ [28] lūṛ’ī gid’ān dār’ant gēšt’ir čō bal’ōč ‘astant dig’a bal’ōč ant w’alē ā āw’ānā guš’ant ki lūṛ’ī 12 ki fārs’īā guš’ant-iš čall’ī fārs’ī-e īr’ānā gīt čall’ī taw’ār-iš-a kanant – ‘The Luri have tents. Mostly they are like Baloch. Actually they are Baloch, but they are called Luri. In Persian they are called Challi, if one takes Iranian Persian they are called Challi.’[29] ahl-e tasann’un čār mazh’ab dār’īt w’alē ē13 amm’ā anaf’ī an ē mantaq’a arčī ast’ant anaf’ī ant – ‘The Sunnites have four confessions, but we are Hanafi. Everyone in this region is Hanafi.’ The fact that case markers can be added to collocations of that kind shows that in these and similar cases the ezāfe is copied as an element of more complex lexical units. In the following sequences this applies to the endings –ay in ahl-e tasann’unay and -ā in tār’īx-e tawal’odā ‘date of birth’: [30] sunn’ī hastant tasann’un ant ahl-e tasann’unay tā anaf’ī ant – ‘They are Sunnites, Sunni people. Among the Sunnites they are Hanafi.’
12 The flow of words was disrupted here.
13 The flow of words was disrupted here.
[31] tār’īx-e tawal’odā n’azānīn amm’ā bal’ōč an n’azānan čunt sāl int payd’ā b’ūtan n’abūtan – ‘I don’t know the date of my birth. We are Baloch. We don’t know how many years ago we were born or so.’ In Persian the direct object of some compound verbs such as taškīl dādan‘to form’, ‘to establish’ can be combined by ezāfe with the nominal component of the verb in the form of taškīl-e čīz-ī dādan ‘to establish something’. Sometimes this pattern is copied in Balochi as in the sample narration lōṭ’īt tašk’īl-e xānawād’a dant ‘[a person] wants to start a family’ (1). Here the ezāfe was copied within the Persian compound verb, which as a whole must be regarded as the primary model code.
Another popular pattern of ezāfe constructions copied in Balochi are paraphrasing collocations such as ba nām-e or ba unwān-e , both meaning‘named’, as used in the sample narration (5, 6, and 8), or dar hāl-e ‘in the state of’. [32] lūṛ’ī … čak’uš-u sind’ān-u š-ēš’ān dār’ant-u hamēš’a dar hāl-e kūč ant š-ē mantaġ’a bi ā mantaġ’a raw’ant –– ‘The Luri … have hammers and anvils and such tings and they are always [in the state of] wandering, they go from this region to that region.’ Here a creation of attributive collocations with the help of ezāfe can be assumed. However, it is revealed that the Persian model codes ba nām-e , baʿonwān-e or dar hāl-e were copied as complex lexical units by the fact that the lexical compounds ba and dar were preserved in the original Persian form14. The ezāfe has become an established feature of modern Balochi in combination with dig’a(r) when being used as a trailing attribute in the meaning of ‘other’, ‘more’, or ‘further’. [33] xūb yak du rōč-e dig’a tēr būt’a ša s’aray – ‘Well, one or two more days passed by for him.’ 14 The pronunciation variant ba is a copy of the Dari preposition ba “to”. [34] dig’a amm’ā panǧ brās an y’akk-ē tī sang’att int wa amm’ā čār brās-e dig’ar am’idā – ‘We are five brothers. One [of them] is your friend and we four other brothers [are] here.’In other cases a productive usage of the ezāfe is quite uncommon, but not unimaginable in modern Balochi of Sistan. In the sample narration the attributive collocation marās’em-e gwanḍ’ē n-ē ‘a small celebration’ (7) was created by combining the adjective gwanḍ ‘small’ (with the Balochi attributive ending -ēn ) by ezāfa with the noun marās’em ‘ceremony’. For ‘household belongings’ the nouns wasā’il ‘belongings’ and gis ‘house’ were combined with each other by ezāfe in the form wasā’el-e gis in the sample narration (6), but the same speaker used the Balochi genitive marker -ay as well, c.f. gis-‘ay wasā’il (10). Instead of the Balochi possessive pronoun wat’ī ‘own’ which usually precedes the word it refers to, the usage pattern of the Persian reflexive pronoun xod can be copied by combining its Balochi equivalent wat by ezāfe with the word it refers to: [35] ā bihišt-e wat ǧūṛ kurt – ‘He built up his own paradise.’ If a speaker uses the ezāfe in a productive way he sometimes realizes that this differs from some standard speech pattern. In such cases doubling is again a popular strategy of self-correction. As a result the genitive can be marked twice – both by ezāfe and by the Balochi genitive case marker -ay as it happened with ǧāmi’a ‘society’ in the following sequence. [36] ē xusūsiy’at-ē int am’ē ǧāmi’aay xusūsiy’at-e am’ē ǧāmi’a int’a – ‘This is a special feature of this society, a feature of this society.If there is a productive usage of the ezāfe at all, in free speech the ezāfe can be seen as a morphological-syntactical feature of modern Balochi in nascent state. Fixed phrases are a special case. The wide field of pragmatics cannot be discussed here but phrases of the Persian taʿārof are often inserted directly and without further adaptation in Balochi conversation, e.g. ġorb’ān-e šom’ā ‘[let me be] your sacrifice’ or ġāb’el-ī n’adāre ‘not worth mentioning’. Other Persian phrases of civility are copied in the Balochi basic code by translating every single lexical element into Balochi. Some of these copies substitute traditional Balochi phrases such as xayr ginday ‘thank you’ or čōn ay ‘how are you?’: [37] dast tī dard m’akant – ‘Thank you!’ (Cf. Persian: dast-e šomā dard n’akon-ad , literally ‘May your hand not hurt!’) [38] hāl tī čōn int – ‘How are you?’ (Cf. Persian: hāl-e šom’ā čet’owr ast , literally ‘How is your state [of condition]’) [39] sā’at tī tēr bīt – ‘Are you well entertained?’ (Cf. Dari: sāʿ’at-e šom’ā tēr mēšawad , literally ‘Are your hours passing by?’) What is remarkable here is that in all these phrases the word order differs from the established syntactical pattern. In Balochi the possessive pronoun tī ‘your’ usually precedes the word it refers to, c.f. tī dast ‘your hand’, tī hāl ‘your state [of condition]’, tī sā’at ‘your hours’. In Persian the ezāfe is used as possessive determiner and the pronoun follows the word it refers to, c.f. dast-e šom’ā ‘your hand’, hāl-e šom’ā ‘your state [of condition]’ or sāʿat-e šom’ā ‘your hours’. In these phrases of civility the Persian ezāfe was copied in the Balochi basic code not directly, but in an indirect way by provoking a changed word order. Furthermore in these phrases the possessive pronoun is always unstressed like in Persian and it adheres to the word it refers to like an enclitic. Beyond fixed phrases of that kind similar changes do not appear in free speech.

3.3 Verb System

In the verb system copies of a Persian model code can be seen in the way the modal meaning of ‘can’, ‘to be able to’ is expressed. In traditional Balochi this is expressed in a more or less descriptive way by using different expressions with the noun was ‘ability’ such as in ša mnī was’ā bīt ki biy’āīn or was dārīn ki biy’āīn , both meaning literally ‘I have the ability to come’. Besides that, analytical constructions are used such as man āt’agā kanīn ‘I can come’. In modern Balochi the new verb tawānt’in / tawān’ag was generated by copying the Persian verb tawānestan . The pattern of how this verb is used in Balochi follows the Persian model code exactly. Usually the main verb appears in the subjunctive form and follows the modal verb; sometimes it precedes the modal verb and appears in the form of a past participle as in colloquial Dari. [40] ar ka māš’īnā tawānt’a pa wat bzīn’īt kār-a kant ‘īngur ‘āngur wall’ā dig’ar k’ār-ē n’aint –‘Everyone who could buy a car for himself is working here and there, but there is no other work.’ [41] bi b’āzē č’ēā ziyār’atānā bi ēš’ānā aqīd’a bāz dār’ant wa ‘ānčō tasaww’ur-akan’ant ki alb’atta ziyārat-a tawān’īt ki yak kār-ē-rā iǧr’ā kant – ‘[They] have strong beliefs in what, in some shrines; and they believe that a shrine, of course, can do something.’ [42] kas-ē zīt’a n’atawānīt – ‘Nobody can buy [it].’ Similarly the Iranian Persian gerund with dāštan can be copied in Balochi by using the lexical equivalent of the basic code dāšt’in / dār’ag literally meaning‘to own’, ‘to have’, or ‘to hold’: [43] kam kam d’ārant ǧōṛ-a kanant – ‘They are building up [the city] little bylittle.’ Even a future tense can be generated by copying the Persian pattern which consists of a finite form of xāstan and the so-called reduced infinitive, but this can hardly be regarded a productive construction in Balochi. More probably than not in the following sequence the expression qab’ūl … n’axāhēm dāšt was copied as a complete lexical unit which reveals itself by the fact that the personal ending -ēm / -īm of the Persian model code was preserved in Balochi: [44] amm’ā qab’ūl n’adāran wa n’axāhēm dāšt – ‘We do not accept [this] and we never will do so.’ In Persian the so-called yā-ye eltezāmī can be added to the infinitive of a verb in order to expresses that something is worth doing, e.g. ǧā-ye dīdan’ī ‘a place worth seeing’, i.e. ‘place of interest’, ‘tourist attraction’. In Balochi a similar characterization is traditionally expressed by combining the infinitive of a verb with the word it refers to using the genitive suffix -ay, such as ǧistin ‘to flee’ and ǧā ‘place’ in the following sequence: [45] ‘ādā ǧist’inay ǧā n’aint – ‘There is no place to flee to.’Correspondingly, for ‘place of interest’, ‘tourist attraction’ one would expect an expression with the verb dīst’in ‘to see’, such as dīst’inay ǧā ‘worth seeing’. However, in modern Balochi the Persian yā-ye eltezāmī can be used instead: [46] zāhid’ān dīstin’ī int – ‘Zahedan is worth seeing.’ A copy of the Persian yā-ye eltezāmī with an attributive meaning can be seen in the expression warag’īyēn āp ‘drinking water’. Constructions with yā-ye eltezāmī can be used to express a predicative meaning as well as to express the intention of doing something: [47] amm’ā am ‘ādā šutin’ī-an – ‘We also will go there.’

4. Conclusions

For the majority of Balochi speakers who can be assigned to the group of coordinate bilinguals code-copying affects most readily the lexicon. In their speech phonic and even morphological-syntactical features of Persian are copied mainly as elements of lexical copies. Such features are only copied habitually depending on various factors like communication situation, subject of conversation, linguistic knowledge and background of a speaker, primary and secondary communicative intentions etc. There is a sequence in the sample narration where the speaker interrupted himself to make sure that I had understood what he was talking about (paragraph 4). Before and after this break the speaker pronounced the word with the meaning ‘marriage portion payable after marriage’ with final -e as mehriye. When addressing me directly he pronounced the same word with final -a as mehriya . In lexical items which are common both for Persian and for Balochi the so-called hā-ye ġeyr-e malfūz is usually pronounced as -e in Iranian Persian, and as -a in Balochi. When asked to tell me something about the marriage ceremony of the Baloch this speaker, obviously, felt like a lecturing teacher. He followed the Persian model code by pronouncing final -e within his lecture because this communication situation belongs to the linguistic domain of Persian. He switched to colloquial speech when he addressed me directly and used the original Balochi pronunciation with final -a , because colloquial communication belongs to the linguistic domain of Balochi.
Linguistic behavior depends much on surrounding conditions, and codecopying is not a matter of pure chance. It must be studied within the context of communication situation variables in order to distinguish those copies which became established linguistic features of modern Balochi from ephemeral insertional switches, and in order to reveal the linguistic and extra-linguistic factors by which such linguistic slips or insertional switches are caused.

Appendix: Sample Narration

The text given below is a phonological transcription of a narration about the wedding traditions of the Baloch which was recorded in April 2002. The speaker lives in the village of Zahak close to Zabol in the Iranian Province of Sistan and Balochistan. He is a Baloch male who works as a taxi driver and was about 40 years old when the text was recorded. In this transcription of free speech no punctuation marks are used. Instead asterisks (*) indicate prosodic breaks which are accompanied by a pause and last approximately up to half a second. Longer pauses are indicated by two asterisks (**). This can help to separate the prosodic units produced by the informant. The dynamic word stress is marked by ‘ before the stressed vowel in polysyllabic words, e.g. naf’ar . In verbal phrases polysyllabic light verbs do not always have a stress accent of their own; one syllable of the whole phrase can be stressed instead. Verbal phrases of that kind are marked by curly brackets in order to show that the marked stress accent affects the whole phrase, e.g. {d’ōst dār-īn} . Significant changes in intonation are marked by arrows; up arrows (↑) indicate rising intonation, down arrows (↓) indicate falling intonation. Significant changes in speech speed are also marked by arrows. A sequence which is set between facing arrows (→ … ←) was spoken with relatively higher speed whereas the speed of speech was reduced significantly in sequences which are set between arrows turning away from each other (← … →). Numbering and paragraphs mark no separation of speech sequences which necessarily would have been intended by the informant. They were added by the author of this paper for easier orientation in the text and in its translation. In most cases this technical separation of the text corresponds to the usage of conjunctive adverbs like g’uṛān ‘then’ which, nevertheless, can be interpreted as starting markers of new units of speech.

Transcript Translation

[1] yak naf’ar-ē * ke * lōṭ’īt * tašk’īl-e
xānawād’a dant * yān’ē ezdew’āǧ
kant ↑ ** bilāxir’a * yak k’as-ē-rā
entex’āb-a ↓ kant * tāt-e naz’ar-a gīt
* {x’ōš-a kant} *
When a person wants to start a
family, i.e. [wants] to marry, [then
he] finally chooses somebody,
considers somebody, [and] likes
somebody.
[2] g’uṛān * wat’ī * xānawād’aā ↑ **
dēm-a dant xāstagār’ī ↓ * bi ‘ā * bestelā
* ǧin’ēnzāgay * xānawād’aay
gis’ā ** guš’īt man ↑ belf’arz-e mes’āl
filān’ī ǧin’ikā {d’ōst dārīn} * braw’īt
pamm’an * {xāstagār’ī ↓ kanīt} **
Then he sends his family for
matchmaking to this, so to speak, to
the house of the girl’s family. He says
that, for example, ‘I love this girl. Go
and woo for me.’
[3] ēš’āna raw’ant ↑ ** bač’akkay *
mard’ēnzāgay xānawād’a {rawant
‘ōdā} ** ‘ōda * wat’ī ab’arānā
day’ant ↑ **
They go. The family of the boy, of the
[young] man goes there; there they
say their matter.
[4] g’uṛān * ‘idā * du ↓ čīz hast * y’ek-ī *
{mehriy’e inta} * mehriy’a z’ānay
č’ī-ē * ↑z’ānay yā na * — [Me:]
z’ānīn — [Informant:] y’ek-ī
Then there are two things. One is
mehriye . Do you know what mehriya
is, do you know it or not? — [Me:]
Yes, I know. — [Informant:] One
{mehriy’e inta} * y’ek-ī {šīrbah’ā ↓
inta} *
thing is mehriye , and the other thing
is šīrbahā .
[5] xō * m’ehriye ↑ yek č’īz-ī ke * yak
mabl’aġ-e pūl {tā’īn-a kanant} * ke
* ā hast ↑ * har mouġ’e-ī ke * →ē
dōk’ēnānī mānǧ’inā yak mouġ’e-ē
extel’āf-ē ↑ kapt * bād ša ezdew’āǧā
extel’āf-ē ↑ kapt-u ēš’ān lōṭit’ant ša
hamdīg’arā ǧud’ā bay’ant ↑← * ā
mabl’aġ-ē ke ba unw’ān-e mehriy’e
int →’annūn har č’īnka hast ↑← * ē
mard’ēnzāg bāy’ad pard’āxt kant bi
ǧin’ēnzāgā ↓ ** ā hast *
Well, mehriye is a thing when they
define an amount of money. This
exists. Whenever between these both
persons occurs a dispute sometimes,
[when] after the marriage a dispute
occurs and they want to separate of
each other, this amount which is
called mehriye , however much it is,
the man must pay [it] back to the
woman. This exists.
[6] y’ak-ē ↑ ba unwān-e šīrbah’ā ↓ ‘inta *
š’īrbahā ↑ yak pūl-ī ke ** š’īrbahā ↑
yak p’ul-ī ke * ē * mard’ēnzāg ā’īrā
dant * bi ǧin’ikkay * xānawād’aā ↑ *
ki p-ā’ī * ǧehziy’e {tā’īn-a ↓ kanant}*
{ǧ’ūṛ-a kanant} y’ānē čē am’ē
wasā’el-e gis’ā ↓ * farš-u yaxč’āl-u
telewizy’ōn-u ēš’ān*
The other is named šīrbahā . Šīrbahā
is money which; šīrbahā is money
which this man gives to the woman’s
family so that they can define the
dowry for her, prepare [the dowry],
i.e. these household belongings,
carpets, refrigerator, TV set, and
these things.
[7] ē * aww’al ke raw’ant xāstagār’ī-ē ↑ *
tawāf’oġ {ās’il-a kanant} * g’uṛān
yak marās’em-ē gīr’ant * be nām-e
šīrīnīxor’ī ↓ * yek marās’em-e
gwanḍ’ēn-ē gīr’ant ↑ * am’ē fām’īlā
ǧamm-a kan’ant * nind’ant * wa
ab’arānā day’ant * yak š’ām-ē {ǧ’ūṛ-
a kanant} * nind’ant šām’ā war’ant *
First they go for matchmaking and
when they obtain approval then they
make a ceremony named šīrīnīxūrī .
They make a small ceremony. They
gather this family, sit down and have
a conversation. They prepare dinner,
sit down and have dinner.
[8] g’uṛān * tebġ-e ↑ * b-estel’ā amm’ay Then according to our tradition,

sonn’at-u * tebġ-e dīn * ēš’ānī aġd’ā
am’ā rūhān’ī * yā am’ā moulaw’ī *
ēš’ānī aġd’ā band’īt ↓ *
according to religion, their marriage,
this clergyman or this Mullah marries
them.
[9] aġd ↑ bast’ag-a bīt tam’ām ↓ * ē yak
mudd’at-ē mān’ant ↑ * yā šiš mā yā
yak sāl yā gēšt’ir yā kamt’ar ↑ →ar či
ki wat tawāf’oġ dār’ant ↓← * ke ē ↑
gis’ay wasā’il {ǧ’ūṛ ↓ būt-ant} *
The engagement is consummated.
End of story. Then they wait for a
while, six months or one year, or
more or less, as long as they agree
with each other, until these
household belongings were
prepared.
[10] g’uṛān bač’ak-a ↑ kayt guš’īt man
{arūs’ī-a ↓ kanīn} * wat’ī * b-estel’ā
xān’omay xānawād’a-ā ↑ guš’īt man-a
lōṭ’īn {arūs’ī ↓ kanīn} *
Then this boy comes and says that he
will marry. He says to, so to speak, to
his wife’s family that he wants to
marry.
[11] pa ēš’ān * leb’ās gīr’ant nōk’ēn ↑ *
am pa ǧin’ikkā am pa bač’akkā
leb’ās nōk’ēn-a gīr’ant *
They buy new clothes for them; both
for the girl and for the boy they buy
new clothes.
[12] g’uṛān yak r’ōč-ē-rā {tā’īn-a ↓
kanant} * ke āġ’ā fil’ān rōč’ā * tī ↑ *
{arūs’ī ↓ inta} *
Then they fix a day [and say:] Mister,
this day will be your wedding.
[13] g’uṛān ēš’ān xō {fām’īl ↑ dārant} *
am bač’akkay * xānawād’a {fām’īl
dārīt} * am ǧin’ikkay xānawād’a
{fām’īl ↓ dārīt} *
Then they have relatives, of course.
Both the family of the boy has
relatives and the family of the girl has
relatives.
[14] ēš’ānā es’āb-a ↑ kanant →belfarz-e
mes’āl ē māšm’ay marās’em-e
arūs’īay tā čunt ↓ naf’ar-a kayt ← *
sad ↑ naf’ar-a kayt * dwīst naf’ar-a
kayt * sē-s’ad naf’ar-a kayt ↑ * ēš’ānā
{kārt-a ↑ dayant} * kārt-e {daʿw’at-
They count them. For example, how
many persons will come to our
wedding ceremony? Hundred
persons, two hundred persons, three
hundred persons will come. They
give them cards, they give them
138
a ↓ dayant} * dwīst sē-s’ad naf’ar *
koll-e wat’ī dūst-u raf’īq-u āšn’ā-u
fām’īlānā ↑ * har naf’ar-ē-rā yak
{k’ārt-ē ↓ dayant} *
invitation cards; to two or three
hundred persons, to all their friends,
comrades, acquaintances, and
relatives, to every person they give an
invitation card.
[15] yak r’ōč-ē-rā ↑ ham {tār’īx-a ǧanant}
ke ham’ā fal’ān rōč’ā * amm’ā *
{nah’ār-a ↓ dayan} *
They fix one day [and say:] this day
we will give a lunch.
[16] ham’ā rōč’ā ↑ bač’ak * ber’enǧ-u *
gūšt-u * taškīl’ātā kār’īt * yak
nah’ār-ē {ǧ’ūṛ-a kanant} * ē *
nah’ārā day’ant *u g’uṛān šap’īnā ↑ *
ke {š’ap-a bīt} * dig’a ēš’ānā bar’antu
* bač’akā bar’ant-u ham’ām ↑-u
sar-u sūr’atā {esl’ā-a kanant}-u *
leb’ās nōk’ēn-u * →dig’ar ann’ūn
mūd ↑ būt’a ǧadīd’an fīlmbardār’ī-a
kan’ant-u ēš’ānī marās’emā ← **
This day this boy brings rice and
meat and all objects. They prepare
lunch. They serve this lunch, and
then in the evening, when it becomes
night, they bring them away; they
bring the boy away, bath him, dress
his hear and shave him, [they dress
him up in] new clothes and … Now,
recently it has come into fashion to
shoot a film of their ceremony.
[17] g’uṛān šap’īnā ēš’ānī aġd’ā ↓
band’ant *
Then in the evening they get
married.
[18] aġd’ā ki band’ant ↑ (… … …)15 *
say ↑ rōč * amm’ay mantaġ’a rasm
int bal’ōčānī * say rōč ē bač’ak
mān’īt am’ē ǧin’ikkay piss’ay ↓ * gis’ā
*
When they make the marriage, in our
region it is a custom of the Baloch
that this boy remains in the house of
the father of this girl three days.
[19] bād ša say ↑ rōč’ā * bač’akkay piss-a
kayt * wat’ī zāg’ā * daʿw’at-a kant
wat’ī gis’ā ↓ ** š-‘idā zūr’īt ↑-u * ā’īrāu
ā’ī xān’umā* zūr’īt-u bārt bi wat’ī
After three days this boy’s father
comes and invites his son to his
house. He takes him away from
there; he takes him and his wife away
15 A sequence of about three syllables cannot be understood due to ambient noises.
Code-Copying in the Balochi Language of Sistan
139
gis’ā ↓ * and brings them to his house.
[20] ‘ōdā bārt-ī ↑ * p-ēš’ān yak * n’azr-ē *
yak p’as-ē * ēš’ānī dēm’ā kuš’īt * pēš’ān
nah’ār-ē ǧūṛ-a kant ēš’ānā
dant **
He brought them there, [makes] an
oblation for them; he butchers a
sheep in front of them, prepares a
lunch for them and gives it to them.
[21] g’uṛān * am’ī fām’īl ↑ * ←brās-u
gwār-u nāk’ō-u nākōz’āk-u trūz’āk-u
ēš’ān → * har š’ap-ē * →ēš’ānā
daʿw’at-a kant wat’ī gis’ā ↓←
Then their relatives, brothers, sisters,
uncles, cousins, etc., every night they
invite them to their houses.
[22] masal’an tī brās ↑ int * šap’ī ta
{daʿw’at-a kanay} b’āndā man
{daʿw’at-a kanīn} pōš’ī ā daʿw’at-a
kant * ē * marās’em-e arūs’ī ↓ int *
For example there is your brother,
one night you invite, tomorrow night
I invite, the day after tomorrow he
invites. This is the wedding
ceremony.
[23] tā taġrīb’an ↑ koll-e fām’il ēš’ānā
{daʿw’at-a kanant} wat’ī gis’ā * ke
marās’em ēš’ānī * dig’a tam’ām ↓ bīt
*
Until approximately all relatives
invite them to their houses, the
wedding ceremony gets finished.
[24] g’uṛān ↑ īh’ā * ‘aga bač’ak * waziy’at
* zāg * waziy’at-e māl’ī-e xūb būt **
{bastag’ī dārīt} * b’āzē mouġeh’ā gō
wat’ī xānewād’aā {zindag’ī-a
kanant} {tawāf’oġ-a kanant} *b’āzē
mouġeh’ā ǧit’ā {zindag’ī-a ↓ kanant}
*
Then they, when the boy, the
situation, when the boy’s financial
situation is good – it depends –
sometimes they live with their
relatives, they agree [to do so], and
sometimes they live apart.
[25] xō b’alōčān ↑ * gēšt’ir yakk-ē *
wābastag’ī-e xānawādag’ī dār’ant *
yān’in wat’ī pis-u m’āsānā ** wayl-a
n’akan-ant ↓
The Baloch mostly have close family
ties, e.g. they do not give up their
parents.
[26] [Me:] {č’ē ↑ nakanant} [Informant:] [Me:] What don’t they do?

* wayl-iš-a n’akanant ke b’erawant
{ǧit’ā bayant} * ǧit’ā ↑ n’abayant *
pis-u m’āsānā w’at-a sāt’ant ↓ *
[Informant:] They don’t give them
up; don’t go away to part [from
them]. They don’t part from them.
[27] pis {p’īr-a ↑ bīt} mās {p’īr-a bīt}
ēš’ānā * {w’at-a sātant} →čūn
bal’ōčān gēšt’ir ← * dar zam’ān-e
pīr’ī ham muht’āǧ ant-u * pa zāg’ān
{muht’āǧ-a ↓ kanant} * zam’ān-ē pīr
bay’ant ↑ pa zāg’ān {muht’āǧ-a ↓
kanant} * dig’a ↑ zāg wat-r’ā s’ātant ↓
*
They take care of their parents.
When the father becomes old, when
the mother becomes old, they take
care for them themselves; because
the Baloch mostly are needy at the
old age, they need their sons. When
they become old they need their
sons. And the son takes care [for
them].
[28] ē ↑ marās’em-e arūs’ī ↓-iš * xō * dig’a
čē lōṭit’ay z’ānay ↑
These are those marriage customs.
What else did you want to know?

References

Buddruss, Georg (1988). Aus dem Leben eines jungen Balutschen, von ihm selbst erzählt, Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag.
Baranzehi, Adam Nader (2003). “The Sarawani Dialect of Balochi and Persian Influence on It”, in Jahani / Korn, pp.75-111.
Brenzinger, Mattias (1997). “Language Contact and Language Displacement”, in Coulmas, F. (ed.), Handbook of Sociolinguistics, Oxford, pp. 273-284.
Craig, Colette (1997). “Language Contact and Language Degeneration”, in
Coulmas, Florian, (ed.), The Handbook of Sociolinguistics, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 257-270.
Elfenbein, Josef (1989). “Balōčī”, in Schmitt, Rüdiger (ed.), Compendium
Linguarum Iranicarum , Wiesbaden: Reichert, pp. 350-361.
Jahani, Carina (1994). “Notes on the use of genitive constructions versus iẓāfa constructions in Iranian Balochi”, in Studia Iranica 23, pp. 285-298.
Code-Copying in the Balochi Language of Sistan 141
Jahani, Carina (1999). “Persian Influence on some Verbal Constructions in
Iranian Balochi”, in Studia Iranica 28, pp. 123-143.
Jahani, Carina (2003). “The Case System in Iranian Balochi in a Contact
Linguistic Perspective”, in Jahani / Korn, pp. 113-132.
Jahani, Carina, and Korn, Agnes (eds.) (2003). The Baloch and Their
Neighbours. Ethnic and Linguistic Contact in Balochistan in Historical and
Modern Times , Wiesbaden: Reichert.
Johanson, Lars (2002). “Do languages die of ‘structuritis’? On the role of codecopying
in language and endangerment”, Italian Journal of Linguistics,
Rivista di Linguistica, 14:2, pp. 249-270.
King, Ruth Elizabeth (2000). The Lexical Basis of Grammatical Borrowing. A
Prince Edward Island French case study, Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Mahmoodi Bakhtiari, Behrooz (2003). “Notes on the Tense System in Balochi
and Standard Persian”, in Jahani / Korn, pp. 133-145.
Mahmoodzahi, Moosa (2003). “Linguistic Contact in Iranian Balochistan in
Historical and Modern Times”, in Jahani / Korn, pp. 147-156.
Rzehak, Lutz (2003). “Some Thoughts and Material on Balochi in
Afghanistan”, in Jahani / Korn, pp. 259-276.
Spooner, Brian (1967). “Notes on the Baluchī Spoken in Persian Baluchistan”,
in Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 5, pp. 51-71.

 

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