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Bibliography of Brian Spooner Research

07 Apr

Given its historical marginality, the size of the literature on Baluchistan is remarkable. But this is due to the interest of the neighboring and other powers that competed to control it as their hinterland—the Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Afghans, British and other colonial powers, Pakistanis, and finally in recent decades the Baluch themselves. The sources therefore fall into the following general categories:
(I) pre-Islamic sources;
(2) works by Muslim (Arab, Persian, and Mughal) historians and travelers before the arrival of the British in India;
(3) works by British administrators, scholars, and travelers;
(4) official publications of the government of India;
(5) official publications of the government of Pakistan;
(6) works by Pakistani scholars;
(7) works by Western and Soviet scholars since 1947;
(8) reports generated by U.N. and other international and bilateral development projects since 1950;
(9) works by Baluch scholars since 1950. What follows is an alphabetical listing of the more significant and accessible sources, including those which have served as the basis of the present article.

Ḥājī ʿAbd-al-Nabī (Hajee Abdun Nabee), ed. Major Robert Leech (see below). I. Afšār, “Bīst šahr o hazār farsang,” Yaḡmā 19, 1345 Š./1966, pp. 87-94, 255-62, 314-19. C. U. Aitchison, A Collection of Treaties, Agreements and Sanads Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries XI, XIII, Calcutta, 1933. Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmī, Āʾīn-e akbarī, ed. Blochmann. Arrian, Anabasis and Indica, ed. and tr. P. A. Brunt, London, 1983. Ẓahīr-al-Dīn Moḥammad Bābor, Bābor-nāma, tr. A. S. Beveridge, London, 1922 (repr. New Delhi, 1970). Mir Khudabux Bijarani Marri Baloch, The Balochis through Centuries. History versus Legend, Quetta, 1965. Idem, Searchlights on Baloches and Balochistan, Karachi, 1974. Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch, Inside Baluchistan: A Political Autobiography of His Highness Baigi: Khan-e-Azam-XIII, Karachi, 1975. Muhammad Sardar Khan Baluch, History of the Baluch Race and Baluchistan, Quetta, 1962 (repr. 1977). Baluchistan: List of Leading Personages in Baluchistan, Government of India Central Publication Branch, Calcutta, 1932. F. Barth, “Ethnic Processes on the Pathan-Baluch Boundary,” in Indo-Iranica. Mélanges présentés à G. Morgenstierne, Wiesbaden, 1964, pp. 13-20. Idem, “Competition and Symbiosis in North-East Baluchistan,” Folk 6, 1964, pp. 15-22. A. Bennigsen and S. Enders Wimbush, Muslims of the Soviet Empire, London, 1985. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Abolishes Sardari System, from his speech at Quetta, 8 April 1976. N. M. Billimoria, Bibliography of Publications Relating to Sind and Baluchistan, Lahore, 1930 (revised 1977). W. T. Blanford, Note on the Geological Formations Seen Along the Coasts of Baluchistan, etc., Records of the Geological Survey of India, Calcutta, 1872. E. Blatter and P. F. Halberg, “Flora of Persian Baluchistan and Makran,” Journal of the Bombay Natural Historical Society 24, 1910. H. Bobek, “Beiträge zur klimaökologischen Gliederung Irans,” Erdkunde 6, 1952, pp. 65-84. C. E. Bosworth, Sistan under the Arabs, from the Islamic Conquest to the Rise of the Saffarids (30-250/651-864), Rome, 1968. Idem, “The Kūfichīs or Qufṣ in Persian history,” Iran 14, 1976, pp. 9-17. C. E. Bosworth, R. M. Burrel, K. McLachlan, and R. M. Savory, eds., The Persian Gulf States. A General Survey, Baltimore, 1980. D. Bray, Life-History of a Brahui, London, 1913. Idem, “The Jat of Baluchistan,” Indian Antiquary 54, 1925, pp. 30-33. C. Brunner, “Geographical and Administrative Divisions: Settlements and Economy,” in Camb. Hist. Iran III/2, pp. 747-77. Cambridge History of India, Delhi, 1958-63. M. L. Chaumont, “Ētats vassaux dans l’empire des premiers Sassanides,” in Monumentum H. S. Nyberg I, Acta Iranica 4, Tehran and Liège, 1975, pp. 133-46. G. B. Castiglioni, “Appunti geografici sul Balucistan iraniano,” Rivista geographica italiana 67, 1960, pp. 109-52, 268-301. B. D. Clark, “Tribes of the Persian Gulf,” in Bosworth et al., pp. 485-509. G. F. Dales, The Role of Natural Forces in the Ancient Indus Valley and Baluchistan, Anthropological Papers 62, University of Utah, 1962. Idem, “Harappan Outposts on the Makran Coast,” Antiquity 36/142, 1962, pp. 86-93. M. L. Dames, Popular Poetry of the Baloches, 2 vols., London 1904a. Idem, The Baloch Race, Asiatic Society Monographs 4, London, 1904b (quoting Elliot, History of India). J. Dresch, “Bassins arides iraniens,” Bulletin de l’Association des géographes français 430, 1975, pp. 337-51. Idem, “Cuvettes iranaises comparées: Djaz Murian et Lut,” Geography (Tehran) 1, 1976, pp. 8-19. R. E. H. Dyer, Raiders of the Sarhad, Being an Account of a Campaign of Arms and Bluff against the Brigands of the Persian-Baluchi Border, London, 1921. W. Eilers, “Das Volk der Maka vor und nach der Achämeniden,” in Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte der Achämenidenzeit und ihr Fortleben, ed. H. Koch and D. N. Mackenzie, Berlin, 1983, pp. 101-22. J. Elfenbein, A Baluchi Miscellanea of Erotica and Poetry: Codex Oriental Additional 24048 of the British Library, AIUON 43/2, Suppl. no. 35, Napoli, 1983. Mountstuart Elphistone, An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, London, 1815. A. T. Embree, ed., Pakistan’s Western Borderlands, Durham, 1977. W. A. Fairservis, Preliminary Report on the Pre-Historic Archaeology of the Afghan Baluchi Areas, American Museum Novitates, American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1952. Fīrūz Mīrzā Farmānfarmā, Safar-nāma-ye Kermān o Balūčestān, ed. M. Neẓām Māfī, Tehran, 1342 Š./1963. K. Ferdinand, “The Baluchistan Barrel-Vaulted Tent,” Folk 2, 1960, pp. 33-50. Ferešta, tr. Briggs. J. P. Ferrier, Caravan Journeys and Wanderings in Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan and Beloochistan, London, 1857. H. Field, An Anthropological Reconnaissance in West Pakistan 1955, Peabody Museum, New York, 1959. E. A. Floyer, Unexplored Baluchistan. A Survey with Observations Astronomical, Geographical, Botanical, etc., of a Route through Mekran, Bashkurd, Persia, Kurdistan and Turkey, London, 1882. R. N. Frye, “Notes on a Trip to Biyabanak, Sistan and Baluchistan in the Winter 1951-2,” Indo-Iranica 6, 1952, pp. 1-6. Idem, “Remarks on Baluchi History,” Central Asiatic Journal 6, 1961, pp. 44-50. A. Gabriel, Durch Persiens Wüsten, Stuttgart, 1935. Idem, “The Southern Lut and Iranian Balutschistan,” Geographical Journal 92, 1938, pp. 193-211. Idem, Aus den Einsamkeiten Irans, Stuttgart, 1939. E. G. Gafferberg, Beludzhi Turkmenskoĭ SSR, Institut Etnografii Miklukho Maklai, Leningrad, 1969. R. E. Galindo, A Record of Two Year Wanderings in Eastern Persia and Baluchistan, Simla, 1890. Y. Gankowsky, “Social Structure of Pakistan’s Brahui-Baluchi Population,” Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 5/4, 1982, pp. 57-73. A. Gansser, “The Taftan Volcano (SE Iran),” Ecologae Geologicae Helvetiae 64, 1971, pp. 319-44. A. Gasteiger, Von Teheran nach Belutschistan. Reise-Skizzen, Innsbruck, 1881. Gazetteer, Baluchistan District Series, ed. R. Hughes-Buller and C. F. Minchin, Bombay, 1906-08. I. Gershevitch, “Travels in Bashkardia,” Royal Central Asiatic Society Journal 46/3-4, 1959, pp. 213-25. F. J. Goldsmid, ed., Eastern Persia. An Account of the Persian Boundary Commission 1870-1872, London, 1876. Government of Pakistan, White Paper on Pakistan, Quetta, 1974. N. P. Grant, “Journal of a Route through the Western Parts of Makran,” JRAS 5, 1839, pp. 328-42. W. Haig, draft of unpublished book concerning the period 1913-1918 in Persia including Baluchistan, in Collection of Private Papers, St. Anthony’s College, Oxford. J. Hansman, “A Periplus of Magan and Meluhha,” BSOAS 36, 1973, pp. 553-86. J. V. Harrison, “Coastal Makran,” Geographical Journal 97, 1941, pp. 1-17. Idem, “The Jaz Murian Depression, Persian Baluchistan,” ibid., 101, 1943, pp. 206-25. S. S. Harrison, In Afghanistan’s Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptations, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, New York, 1981. R. B. Hetu Ram, Tārīḵ-eBalūčestān, Quetta, 1907. A. Houtum-Schindler, “Notes on Persian Baluchistan. From the Persian of Mirza Mehdi Khan,” JRAS 7, 1877, pp. 147-54. A. Jahānbānī, ʿAmalīyāt-e qošūn dar Balūčestān az Mordād tā Bahman 1307, Tehran, 1336 Š./1957. Idem, Sargoḏašt-e Balūčestān, Tehran, 1338 Š./1959. Kayhān, Joḡrāfīā. Kent, Old Persian. N. de Khanikoff, Mémoire sur la partie méridionale de l’Asie Centrale, Paris, 1864. J. H. Lace, “A Sketch of the Vegetation of British Baluchistan,” Journal of the Linnaean Society 28, 1897, pp. 228-327. Lambton, Landlord and Peasant. R. Leech, “Brief History of Kalat Brought down to the Disposition and Death of Nawab Khan Braho-ee,” JASB 12, 1843, pp. 473-512. Idem, “Notes Taken on a Tour through Parts of Baloochisthan, in 1838 and 1839, by Hajee Abdun Nubee, of Kabul, Arranged and Translated by Major Robert Leech,” ibid., 13, 1844, pp. 667-706, 786-826. L. Lockhart, Nadir Shah. A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources, London, 1938. Lorimer, Gazetteer. Markwart, Provincial Capitals. M. Maroth, “Sistan nach den arabischen geographischen Quellen,” in Studies in the Sources on the History of Pre-Islamic Central Asia, ed. J. Harmatta, Budapest, 1979, pp. 145-51. C. Masson, Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, London, 1842. S. B. Miles, The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf, London, 1919 (repr. 1966). V. Minorsky, “Mongol Placenames in Mukri Kurdistan (Mongolica 4),” BSOAS 19, 1957, p. 81. G. Morgenstierne, Report on a Linguistic Mission to North-Western India, Oslo, 1932. Erwin Orywal, Die Baluc in Afghanisch-Sistan, Kölner Ethnologische Studien 4, Berlin, 1982. C. McC. Pastner, “A Social, Structural and Historical Analysis of Honor, Shame and Purdah,” Anthropological Quarterly 45/4, 1972, pp. 248-61. Idem, “Cousin Marriage among the Zikri Baluch of Coastal Pakistan,” Ethnology 18, 1979, pp. 31-47. C. McC. Pastner and S. Pastner, “Agriculture, Kinship and Politics in Southern Baluchistan,” Man 7/1, 1972, pp. 128-36. R. N. Pehrson, The Social Organization of the Marri Baluch, ed. F. Barth, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 43, New York, 1966. Persia, Geographical Handbook Series, Naval Intelligence Division, London, 1945. M. Pikulin, Beludzhi, Moscow, 1959. Marco Polo, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venitian, Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, tr. H. Yule, rev. and enl. H. Cordier, London, 1926. H. Pottinger, Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde; Accompanied by a Geographical and Historical Account of Those Countries with a Map, London, 1816 (repr. Westmead, 1972). R. B. Diwan Jamiat Rai, The Domiciled Hindus, ed. Denys Bray, Delhi, 1913. R. L. Raikes, “The Ancient Ghabarbands of Baluchistan,” East and West, N.S. 15/1-2, 1964-65, pp. 26-35. H. G. Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan and Baluchistan, Lahore, 1878. Razmārā, Farhang. P. A. Rittikh, “Poezdka v Persiyu i Persidskiĭ Beludzhistan 1900,” Izvestiya Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva 38, 1902. K. M. Röhrborn, Provinzen und Zentralgewalt Persiens im 16 und 17 J., Studien zur Sprache, Geschichte und Kultur des Islamischen Orients, Berlin, 1966. A. Rooman, The Brahuis of Quetta-Kalat Region, Pakistan Historical Society, Memoir 3, Karachi, 1960. E. C. Ross, “Memorandum of Notes on Mekran, together with Report on a Visit to Kej and Route through Mekran from Gwadur to Kurrachie,” Bombay Geographical Society 18, 1867, pp. 36-77. J. P. Rumsey, “Some Notes on Leadership in Marri Baloch Society,” Anthropology Tomorrow (University of Chicago) 5, 1957, pp. 122-26. J. Saldanha, Official History of the Mekran Telegraph Line from Karachi to Jask, n.p., 1895. P. C. Salzman, “Adaptation and Political Organization in Iranian Baluchistan,” Ethnology 10/4, 1971, pp. 433-44. Idem, “Multi-Resource Nomadism in Iranian Baluchistan,” Journal of Asian and African Studies 7, 1972, pp. 60-68 (also published in W. Irons and N. Dyson-Hudson, eds., Perspectives on Nomadism, Leiden, 1972). Idem, “The Proto-State in Iranian Baluchistan,” in Origins of the State: The Anthropology of Political Evolution, ed. R. Cohen and L. R. Service, Philadelphia, 1978, pp. 125-40. Idem, ed., When Nomads Settle, Processes of Sedentarization as Adaptation and Response, New York, 1980. C. Schefer, tr., Histoire de l’Asie Centrale par Mir Abdoul Kerim Bouchary, Paris, 1876. W. H. Schoff, tr., Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century, New York, 1912. H. Scholberg, The District Gazetteers of India. A Bibliography, Inter Documentation Company AG ZUG, Switzerland, 1970. F. Scholz, Belutschistan (Pakistan). Eine sozialgeographische Studie des Wandels in einem Nomadenland seit Beginn der Kolonialzeit, Göttinger Geographische Abhandlungen 63, 1964. H. P. Schurmann, The Mongols of Afghanistan, The Hague, 1962. Schwarz, Iran, pp. 260ff. Mīrzā Moḥammad-Taqī Lesān-al-Molk Sepehr, Nāseḵ al-tawārīḵ, ed. J. Qāʾemmaqāmī, Tehran, 1337 Š./1958. E. A. Shteĭnberg, “Vosstaniya v Beludzhistane i Khuzistane,” Novyĭ Vostok 25, 1921. H. Humbach and P. O. Skjærvø, The Sassanian Inscription of Paikuli III/1: Restored Text and Translation, III/2: Commentary, Wiesbaden, 1983. C. P. Skrine, “The Highlands of Persian Baluchistan,” Geographical Journal 78, 1931, pp. 321-40. Idem, “The Quetta Earthquake,” ibid., 88, 1936, pp. 414-30. R. E. Snead, “Active Mud Volcanoes of Baluchistan, West Pakistan,” Geographical Review 54, 1964, pp. 546-60. Idem, Physical Geography of the Makran Coastal Plain of Iran, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1970. B. Spooner, Religious and Political Leadership in Persian Baluchistan, Ph.D. thesis, Oxford University, 1967. Idem, “Politics, Kinship and Ecology in South-East Persia,” Ethnology 8/2, 1969, pp. 139-52. Idem, “Notes on the Toponymy of the Persian Makran,” in Iran and Islam, ed. C. E. Bosworth, Edinburgh, 1971, pp. 517-33. Idem, “Nomadism in Baluchistan,” in Pastoralists and Nomads in South-East Asia, ed. L. S. Leshnik and G. D. Sontheimer, Wiesbaden, 1975, pp. 171-82. Idem, “Who are the Baluch?” in Qajar Iran, ed. C. E. Bosworth and C. Hillenbrand, Edinburgh, 1984, pp. 93-112. Idem, “Weavers and Dealers: The Authenticity of an Oriental Carpet,” in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, ed. A. Appadurai, Cambridge, 1986, pp. 195-235. Sir A. Stein, An Archaeological Tour to Gedrosia, New Delhi, 1931 (repr. 1982). A. W. Stiffe, “Mudcraters and Geological Structures of the Makran Coast,” Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 1874. N. B. Swidler, “Brahui Political Organization and the National State,” in Embree, 1977, pp. 108-25. Idem, The Political Structure of a Tribal Federation: The Brahui of Baluchistan, Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, New York, 1969. W. W. Swidler, Technology and Social Structure in Baluchistan, West Pakistan, Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, New York, 1968. Idem, “Economic Change in Baluchistan: Processes of Integration in the Larger Economy of Pakistan,” in Embree, 1977, pp. 85-108. P. Sykes, “Some Notes on Journeys in Southern and South-Eastern Persia,” Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 21, 1905, pp. 1-12. Idem, Ten Thousand Miles in Persia or Eight Years in Iran, London, 1902. Ḥ. Taqīzāda, in Jahānbānī, 1957, historical chapter. G. P. Tate, Kalat, Calcutta, 1896. Idem, The Frontiers of Baluchistan, London, 1909. T. H. Thornton, Colonel Sir Robert Sandeman: His Life and Work on Our Indian Frontier, London, 1895 (Quetta, 1977). W. Tomaschek, “Zur historischen Topographie von Persien,” Sb. Wiener (Österreichischen) Akademie der Wissenschaften 102, 1883, pp. 145-231, 561-99. Ya. R. Vinnikov, Beludzhi Turkmenskoĭ SSR, Sovetskaya ètnografiya, 1952, no. 1. L. Virsa, Dera Ghazi Khan Field Staff Report, Islamabad, 1984. C. Vita-Finzi, “Quaternary Deposits in the Iranian Makran,” Geographical Journal 141, 1975, pp. 415-20. E. W. Vredenburg, “A Geographical Sketch of the Baluchistan Desert and Parts of Eastern Persia,” Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India 31/2, 1901, pp. 179-302. Idem, “Geology of Sarawan, Jhalawan, Mekran and the State of Las Bela,” Records of the Geological Survey of India 38, 1909, pp. 189-215. W. H. Waaltyer, A Geographical Statistical and Historical Description of Hindostan and the Adjacent Countries, London, 1820. Aḥmad-ʿAlī Khan Wazīrī Kermānī, Tārīḵ-eKermān, ed. M.-E. Bāstānī Pārīzī, Tehran, 1340 Š./1961. Idem, Joḡrāfīā-ye mamlakat-e Kermān, ed. M.-E. Bāstānī Pārīzī, Tehran, 1346-47 Š./1967-68. A. T. Wilson, The Persian Gulf, London, 1928. R. G. Wirsing, The Baluchis and Pathans, London, 1981. N. Zarudnyĭ, “Tret’ya èkskursiya po vostochnoĭ Persii,” Zapiski Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva 50, 1916, pp. 1-448.

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